Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
PSY (800)
PSY100H1 (400)

PSY100H1 Study Guide - Chief Operating Officer

Course Code
Sissi Chen

of 1
Communication one of most complicated processes: speech& language2 highly interrelated components of
Communication: exchange of ideas, opinions & facts b/w senders & receivers- sender composes & transmit
message & receiver decodes & understands message (senders & receivers partners in communication process)
Speech &language not same thing
Speech: audible rep of language-1 way of expressing language
Language reps message contained in speech- manual sign language, written communication, spoken language
(which is also speech)
can have language without speech (sign language) & speech without language- speech of birds that trained to
1) PHONOLOGY: system of speech sounds one utters- rules regarding how sounds can be used & combined- C A T
has 3 phonemes
2) SYNTAX: rules governing sentence structure, word order & sequence- how words combined in phrases &
sentences (e.g. Will you help Janice vs. You will help Janice- changes meaning)
3) MORPHOLOGY: smallest unit of meaning- form & internal structure of words- transformation of words in terms
of tense, number etc..
e.g. present to past tense with ed, singular to plural with s)- CAT S 2 units of meaning concept of
cat & concept of plural
involves prefixes, suffixes, inflection
4) GRAMMAR: combination of syntax & morphology
5) SEMANTICS: understanding of language- meaning- whether speaker’s intended message is conveyed by words &
combination in age-appropriate manner
Meaning of word to individual unique to each person’s mental dictionaries (lexicon)
6) PRAGMATICS: rules that govern reason(s) for communicating ( communicative functions or intentions) & rules
that govern the choice of codes to be used when communicating
Change way you talk tone, wording etc depending on env that you are in & who you are talking to and
about what- way teachers talk when giving direct instruction, chatting at party or conveying a message
at faculty meeting is dif
Process of turn-taking & initiating, maintaining & ending a convo
Young children go through many stages to acquire language (preverbal stage using words in sentences)
Infant’s initial verbal output- limited to cry- discomfort (hunger, pain, being wet or soiled)
Around 2 months begn to coo as well as cry to verbally express pleasure & discomfort
3-6 months begin to babble making consonant & vowel sounds- make sounds repeatedly when alone-
experimenting not really trying to communicate balle when parents playing with or handling them
First words- babies begin to string together sounds that occasionally resembles words- parents echo, repeat &
Baby begins to listen to adult speech, exchanges or conversations, respong to sound saying “da da”
Child’s vocal productionsmay noly be understood by close family members
Baby begins to use dif tones & vocal intensity vocalization vaguely resemble adult speech