PSY100H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Observer-Expectancy Effect, Gestalt Psychology
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7 Themes of Psychology
1) Psychology is an empirical science- Psychological science relies on empirical evidence as a way of knowing about how
we think, feel and behave.
2) *Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined: Nature and nurture depend on each other, and their influences
cannot be separated.
3) The Brian and mind are inseparable- Older dualist notions about the separation of the brain and mind have been
replaced with the idea that the physical brain enables the mind, and the two cannot be separated
4) A new biological revolution is energizing research- the scientific knowledge of brain activity has been enhanced by
the discovery of neurotransmitters. Mapping of the human genome has furthered genetics role in analyzing both
disease and behavior. Advances in brain imaging have revealed the working brain.
5) *The Mind is adaptive- The brain has evolved to solve survival problems and adapt to environments, modern
behaviors are byproducts of adaptation
6) Psychological Science crosses levels of analysis: Psychological scientist examine behavior from various analytical
levels: biological (brain systems, neurochemistry, and genetics), individual (personality as well as perception and
cognition, social (interpersonal behavior) and cultural (within a single culture to several)
7) We are often unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel and act- hundreds of studies show that
subtle events in the environment can change how we think without us knowing
How Did the scientific foundations of psychology develop?
Experimental psychology begins with structuralism-Ideas can be broken down to elements
-Psychology formed as a formal discipline in 1879, in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratories in Germany, using techniques of
introspection(a examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of
their thoughts), scientist attempted to understand conscious experience by reducing it to its structure.
Functionalism addresses the purpose of behavior, functionalist value this over structure.
-James argued that the mind was more complex than the elements and therefore cannot be broken down. Example the
stream of consciousness (ever changing thoughts). Functionalism- and approach to psyc concerned with the adaptive
purpose of the mind.
Gestalt psychology emphasizes patterns and context in learning
Gestalt theory- The assertion that the whole experience is greater than the sum of its parts led to an approach
emphasizing SUBJECTIVE experience of perception. Example a triangle to the view is not three lines on a paper. Two
people can see an object and see different things
Women contributions-Mary Calkin, Marget Washburn, Emma baker have been under acknowledged
Fred Emphasized the power on unconsciousness
Much of human behavior operates below the level of awareness- the unconscious. Freud used psychoanalysis to try to
bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious so that conflicts can be revealed. Free association sometimes got
down deep issues. Although rejected, his views on mental process below awareness is highly accepted in psyc
Most Behavior can be modified by reward or punishment
Watson-behaviorism- Nature is all-mental states are nothing more than an illusion. Example: Animals learn to perform by
results. If they get food if they do something, they will continue to do so.
Cognition Affects Behavior
Mental functions are important for understanding behavior, George miller started cognitive psychology which studied how
people think, learn and remember. Cognitive neuroscience- the study of the mechanism that underlies thought, learning
Social Situations Shape Behavior
Social psychology- the study of group dynamics in relation to psychological processes. Kurt Lewin-experiment to social
psychology. Field theory showed the interplay between people and their environments, such as social situations. Nazis
Psychological Therapy is based science
Scientific research over the course of the twentieth century taught psychological scientist that there is no universal
treatment for disorders, instead everyone is different.
Schools of thoughts: Behaviorism, functionalism, cognitive, social , Gestalt, structuralism, psychoanalysis.
How To apply Psychology
It’s the study of human behavior, so relevant in virtually every profession.
Humans naturally predict behavior but bias lead us to wrong conclusions that’s why you need psyc
Critical thinking- understanding the methods are important for evaluating research reported in popular media
Code of ethics
Affects all areas of life
Chapter 2:Research Methodology
The scientific method depends on theories, hypotheses and research-what-when-what-why
The scientific method depends on theories, hypotheses and research
Scientific inquiry relies on objective methods and empirical evidence to answer testable questions. Interconnected ideas of
theories yield hypotheses which are tested through research by evaluating data.
Focus on theory
Find data to support
or refute theory
Report results that
violence in youth and
amount of TV they
TV causes violence
Theories should generate hypotheses: A good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses.
Unexpected findings can be valuable-serendipitous discoveries sometimes occur, but only those who see their importance
What Are the types of studies in psychological research
Once a hypothesis has been formed there are three ways to study the data. The types of designs are descriptive,
correlation, and experimental. All research involves the use of variable, which is something that can measure and changed.
Researchers must define variables, by using operational definitions which identity and quantify variables so they can be
measured. Example putting a scale 1-10 to something that usually has no quantity.
Descriptive studies involve observing and classifying behavior
Two basic types of observational studies
1) -Naturalistic observation- a passive descriptive study in which observes does not change or alter behavior.
2) -Participant Observation-A type of descriptive study in which a researcher is actively involved in the situation,
something like yelling that people are being studied at a bar may lead to inaccurate results, thus its ideal to limit
impact on situations
Advantages: Valuable at early staged when trying to determine whether a phenomenon exist, takes place in world setting
Disadvantages: Error can occur because of observer’s bias or observer changes the behavior of the witnessed.
Longitudinal studies-involves observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time,
either with no intervention by the observer or with intervention by the observer-studying youth every 3 years
Advantage-shows developmental changes
Disadvantage- expensive, takes a long time and may lose participant interest.
Cross sectional studies- when comparing two various groups and various measures-faster but unidentified variables
Observer Bias-systematic errors in oberservation that occur because of an observers expectations. Example: Cultural
norms- males show less emotion, if observer was to evaluate emotion he may disregard the emotion of men based on
Experimental expectancy effect-Actual change in behavior of people being observed is due to observer bias- example:
case study with 2 rats with same genetic coding, but one class was told theirs was better, as a result it was better. Student
biases cause them to give off subtle cues that changed rat’s behavior
Correlation designs examine how variables are related: A correlation study examines how variables are naturally related
in real world, without any attempt to alter them. But cannot be used to establish causality or the direction of a
relationship. Directionality problem
Third variable problem: Instead of the presumption A causes B, a third variable C may cause A and B. Example more
churches cause grater rate of crime, but ignores fact that more church may mean more people.
An Experiment involved manipulating conditions
Control variable-the participants in a study that receive no intervention
Experimental group-The participants in a study that receive the intervention
Independent variable-In experiment, the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on
Dependent variable-in an experiment the measure that is affected by the independent variable
Establishing causality- Depends on control variable, a confound is anything that affects the dependent variable and may
unintentionally vary between the study’s different experiment conditions. Example number of hours worked may be
confounded with how much money we spend in activities.
Mapping of the human genome has furthered genetics role in analyzing both disease and behavior. Experimental psychology begins with structuralism-ideas can be broken down to elements. Functionalism addresses the purpose of behavior, functionalist value this over structure. James argued that the mind was more complex than the elements and therefore cannot be broken down. Example the stream of consciousness (ever changing thoughts). Functionalism- and approach to psyc concerned with the adaptive purpose of the mind. Gestalt psychology emphasizes patterns and context in learning. Gestalt theory- the assertion that the whole experience is greater than the sum of its parts led to an approach emphasizing subjective experience of perception. Example a triangle to the view is not three lines on a paper. Two people can see an object and see different things. Women contributions-mary calkin, marget washburn, emma baker have been under acknowledged. Much of human behavior operates below the level of awareness- the unconscious.