-the theory of objective self awareness is that self awareness leads people to act according to their
personal beliefs and values.
-discrepancies between personal standards and goals can motivate behaviours to reduce the
-self discrepancy theory is that the awareness of differences between personal standards and goals
leads to strong emotions. For example, if you failed a test because you did not study, you might feel
depressed. If you cheated on a test, you might feel guilty or anxious. = here there is a discrepancy
between how we see ourselves, as lazy and not studious or honest, and how we would like to see
ourselves, academically successful.
-self awareness is dependent on the normal development of the frontal lobes of the brain
-damage to the frontal lobes = minimal amount of self reﬂection in the patient and lack of interest in their
-for example, by removing the frontal lobe of a very intelligent patient, the patient!s knowledge about the
world were intact, but he became very unproductive, especially at work. Therefore, damage to the frontal
lobes => social and motivational impairments that interfere with job performance. Furthermore, the
patient did not realize that he had a problem and could not process information properly about the self
SELF SCHEMA: the cocktail party effect = you!re at a crowded party, you can barely hear anyone
speaking to you but if someone calls out your name, you hear it right away. This is because information
about the self is processed deeply, thoroughly and automatically.
-self schema is the cognitive aspect of the self concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories,
beliefs and generalizations about the self.
-the self schema helps you ﬁlter information so that you notice things that are self relevant (ie your name)
-it consists of integrated knowledge about the self.
-it consists of information that is personally important to your character
-the self schema helps us perceive, organize, interpret and use information about the self.
-It is a network of interconnected knowledge about the self; it summarizes past experiences and
information to provide us with answers to the question “who am I” automatically
-it easier for people to process information (like if asked the question “what does the word honest mean”)
when it is relevant to the self. For example, with this honest question, if it is posed in a way that it is
related to you (like, “does the word honest describe you”), then it is processed more deeply than if it is
posed in a way that shows its general meaning.
-at a biological level - there are neurons that are meant to speciﬁcally process self referential information.
The medial frontal lobes is active when people process information about themselves. The greater
activation of this area during self referencing means that you are more likely to remember this memory
(of self referencing) when asked about it later.
-also, we spoke about earlier the intelligent patient who had his frontal lobes removed and he was
unaware of his poor behaviour: this further emphasizes the fact that the frontal lobes are important for
processing information about the self.
WORKING SELF CONCEPT: the immediate experience of self is the working self concept.
-it is limited to the amount of personal information that can be processed cognitively at any given time
-the working self concept only contains a fragment of knowledge about the self, so the sense of self
varies depending on the situation
-your self descriptions vary as a function of which memories you retrieve, which situation you are in, the
people you are with and the role you play in that situation. For example, if you are at a party, your
working self concept is likely to be that you are a fun person. The next day, if you are studying, your
working self concept is likely to be that you are intelligent => situations shape behaviour. Different
situations elicit different behaviours because the situation activates different aspects of the self concept.
-when asked the question “who am I?”, your answers are likely to reﬂect characteristics that make you
distinct from others. In a case like you are born in Canada, but you are in Miami when asked that
question, the person will likely answer and mention his/her nationality because that makes him/her