PSY100H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 144 pages long!)

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PSY100H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psychologists believe that scientific methods and be used in the behavioural domain to
understand and improve the world
Scientifically minded people try to figure out things through testing/observation
The careful observation of the world with the aim to better understand it
Provide the basic data that allow scientists to organize information about the world
Use of Systematic observation
Use of empirical methods
Done systematically under controlled conditions
i.
Systematic observation is the core of science
- done so in a very organized way
1.
State these hypotheses and theories in a way that can be tested
i.
Observation leads to hypotheses we can test
2.
People want to form their own opinions and debate conclusions
i.
Scientists are skeptical and have open discussions about theories
ii.
Science is democratic
3.
Learn earlier truths and build on them
i.
An aspect of scientific progress is furthering earlier proved knowledge
ii.
Science is cumulative
4.
The essential elements of science are:
What is Science?
Self-report problems - they might lie about it
Peer report measures: compare and contrast self-reported measures
Memory measures: positive people recall positive events and vice versa
Biological measures: saliva cortisol samples or fMRI images of brain activation (left pre-
frontal cortex is associated with good moods)
Psychologists are limited in the way they can test behaviour, other methods have been found:
But it is a science as it uses observation to draw inferences
Psychology as a Science
Organizational psychology - produce greater productivity and satisfaction in the
workplace
Human factor psychologist helped to redesign cockpit controls so it was less confusing
leading to a decrease in pilot errors and crashes
To create interventions to help people live better lives
Psychological findings have practical importance in the world outside the laboratory
Psychological Science is Useful
Many studies with human research participants - much potential of psychological harm
Informed consent
: people should know when they are involved in research and
understand what will happen to them during the study - given the choice to participate or
not
1.
Confidentiality
- information about the individual should not be public unless allowed
2.
A specific set of ethics are followed:
Ethics of Scientific Psychology
Why Science?
Saturday, January 14, 2017
1:39 PM
PSY100 Page 1
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Confidentiality
- information about the individual should not be public unless allowed
2.
Privacy
- no observations of people in private places; should not seek confidential
information from others, without consent of participant
3.
Benefits -
consider benefits of research and the risk to the participants. Risks exposed only
if the participant understands them and only if the likely benefits outweigh the risks
4.
Deception
- some researchers need to deceive participants in order to prevent participants
from modifying their behaviour in unnatural ways; a debrief should occur after the study
is completed - expose true nature of study
5.
Understand ourselves
1)
Understand other people and groups
2)
Better able to influence others (e.g. socializing children or motivating employees)
3)
Help others and improve the world
4)
Learn a skill that will lead to a profession like social worker/professor
5)
Evaluate the research claims you hear or read about
6)
Why learn about Scientific Psychology?
Charles Darwin
William James was heavily influenced by this person - as he developed his approach to psychology?
PSY100 Page 2
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Document Summary

Psychologists believe that scientific methods and be used in the behavioural domain to understand and improve the world. Scientifically minded people try to figure out things through testing/observation. The careful observation of the world with the aim to better understand it. Provide the basic data that allow scientists to organize information about the world. Approaches to inquiry tied to actual measurement and observation. Systematic observation is the core of science- done so in a very organized way i. Observation leads to hypotheses we can test i. State these hypotheses and theories in a way that can be tested. People want to form their own opinions and debate conclusions. Scientists are skeptical and have open discussions about theories. An aspect of scientific progress is furthering earlier proved knowledge. Self-report problems - they might lie about it. Psychologists are limited in the way they can test behaviour, other methods have been found: Peer report measures: compare and contrast self-reported measures.

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