PSY100H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Self-Actualization

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychological Science
Themes of Psychological Science
1. The principles of psychological Science are cumulative
Research on mind, brain and behaviour has accumulated over time
2. A new biological revolution is energizing research
A new biological revolution of profound significance is in progress at the dawn of the 21st century, bringing
with it a deeper understanding of the human mind and behaviour
3. A mind is adaptive
Evolutionary theory: a theory that emphasized the inherited, adaptive value of behaviour and mental activity
throughout the entire history of a species
Natural selection: Darwin’s theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular
environment have a selective advantage over those who do not
Adaptations: in evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills or abilities that increase the chances of
reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations
Culture: the beliefs, values, rules and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language
and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next
Norms: specify how people ought to behave in different contexts
4. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis
The mind and behaviour can be studied on many levels of analysis
Category
Levels
What is studied?
Social
Cultural
Norms, beliefs, values, symbols, ethnicity
Interpersonal
Groups, relationships, persuasion, influence, workplace
Individual
Individual differences
Personality, gender, developmental age groups, self-concept
Perception an cognition
Thinking, decision making, language, memory, seeing, hearing
Behaviour
Observable actions, responses, physical movements
Biological
Brain systems
Neuroanatomy, animal research, brain imaging
Neurochemical
Neurotransmitters and hormones, animal studies, drug studies
Genetic
Gene mechanisms, heritability, twin and adoption studies
Amusia: the inability to recognize familiar tunes
Social aspects involve an examination of how cultural and social contexts affect the ways people interact and
influence each other
Individual aspects concern individual differences in personality and mental processes that concern how we
perceive and know our worlds
Biological aspects deal with how the physical body contributes to mind and behaviour
The intellectual origins of psychology
Nature-nurture debate: the arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or
acquired through education, experience and culture
Schizophrenia: disorder in which people have unusual thoughts such as believing they are God, or experience unusual
sensations, such as hearing voices
Bipolar disorder: a person has dramatic mood swings, from feeling extremely sad to feeling euphoric
Posttraumatic stress disorder: people have intrusive and unwanted memories of their traumatic experiences
Mind-body problem: a fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are separate and distinct
or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain; our mind is what our brain does
Sensus communis: da Vinci believed to be the home of thought and judgement
Dualism: the philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body yet intertwined (Descartes)
Natural selection: the process by which random mutations in organisms that are adaptive are passed along and
mutations hinder reproduction are not
How did the scientific foundations of psychology develop?
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Experimental psychology begins with structuralism
Introspection: a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on
the content of their thoughts
Structuralism: an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic
underlying components or elements
Functionalism addresses the purpose of behaviour
Stream of consciousness: a phrase coined by William James to describe one’s continuous series of ever-changing
thoughts
Functionalism: an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behaviour
Progressive approach: teaching students according to how the mind processed information rather than simply through
repetitive drill learning; emphasized divergent thinking and creativity rather than the rote learning of conventional
knowledge that might be incorrect anyway
Gestalt psychology emphasizes patterns and context in learning
Gestalt theory: a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its
constituent elements
Phenomenological approach: observations of ordinary people in investigating subjective experience; refers to the
totality of subjective conscious experience
The unconscious influences everyday mental life
Unconscious: a term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness
Psychoanalysis: a method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into
conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed
Free association: people would simply talk about whatever they wanted to for as long as they wanted to; Freud believed
that people would eventually reveal the unconscious conflicts that were causing them problems
Most behaviour can be modified by reward and punishment
Behaviourism: a psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behaviour
How people think affects behaviour
Cognitive psychology is concerned with higher order mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory
and decision making
Information processing theories of cognition viewed the brain as the hardware that ran the mind as software
Social situations shape behaviour
Social psychology focuses on the power of situation and how people are shaped through their interactions with others
Psychological therapy is based on science
People can come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potentials
How can we apply psychological science?
Subdisciplines focus on different levels of analysis
Psychological scientist: one who uses the methods of science to study the interplay between brain, mind and behaviour
and how the social environment affects these processes
Psychological practitioners: those who apply findings from psychological science in order to assist people in their daily
lives
Social psychologists: focus on the influences that other situations and people have on how we act, think and feel
Personality psychologists: interested in individual preferences such as how certain types of people might prefer certain
types of music
Developmental psychologists: address changes in mind and behaviours over the life span and so they might study how
children learn the basic structure of music or how musical preferences change as one grows older
Cognitive psychology: concerned with mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, remembering and decision making
and so researchers in this area might be interested in how people perceive various aspects of music as well as how
much changes the way people think
Cognitive neuroscience: would seek to understand the brain systems involved in the perception of music and how they
might differ from the parts of the brain involved in ordinary auditory processing
Behavioural neuroscientists: study the biological mechanism responsible for behaviour
Experimental psychopathologists: study abnormal or disordered behaviour
Critical thinking: a systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable conclusions
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Chapter 2 research methodology
What is scientific inquiry?
Steps in research
Example
Formulate hypothesis
People who are intoxicated will show less motor coordination than people who
have not drunk alcohol
Design study
Plan an experiment in which you give alcohol to one group and no alcohol to a
control group. Alternatively, compare people before and after drinking alcohol
Collect the data
Give people alcohol and measure motor coordination and balance, select tasks
that area appropriate to collect this information
Analyze data
Use statistical techniques to assess whether the results are genuine or probably
due to chance
Disseminate the results
Report on the findings in a research journal or at a conference
Scientific questions can be objectively answered
Replication: repetition of an experiment to confirm the results
The empirical process depends on theories, hypothesis and research
Theory: a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about
future events
Hypothesis: a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct
Research: scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data
Data: objective observations or measurements
The four goals of psychological science are to describe (what), predict (when), control (what causes), and explain (why)
behaviour and mental activity
Serendipity: the unexpected stumbling upon something important
What are the types of studies in psychological research?
Variables: something in the world that can be measured and that can vary
Operational definition: the quantification of a variable that allows it to be measured
1. An experiment involves manipulating conditions
Experiment: a study that tests causal hypothesis by measuring and manipulating variables
Independent variable: in an experiment, the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact
on the dependent variable
Dependent variable: in an experiment, the measure that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable
Confound: anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental
conditions of a study
Random assignment: the procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in which each
participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable
2. Correlational designs examine how variables are related
Correlational study: a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any
attempt by the researcher to alter them
Third variable problem: when the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore
cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable
3. Descriptive studies observe and classify behaviour
Descriptive study: a research method that involves observing and noting the behaviour of people or other animals in
order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behaviour
Naturalistic observation: a passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing behaviour
Participant observation: a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation
What are the data-collection methods of psychological science?
1. Observing is an unobtrusive strategy
Observational technique: a research method of careful and systematic assessment and coding of overt behaviour
Observer bias: systematic errors in observation that occur due to an observer’s expectations
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Document Summary

Research on mind, brain and behaviour has accumulated over time. A new biological revolution of profound significance is in progress at the dawn of the 21st century, bringing with it a deeper understanding of the human mind and behaviour. Evolutionary theory: a theory that emphasized the inherited, adaptive value of behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species. Natural selection: darwin"s theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not. Adaptations: in evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations. Culture: the beliefs, values, rules and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next. Norms: specify how people ought to behave in different contexts.

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