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Term Test 2 and exam definitions definitions for term test 2 and exam (excluding term test 1)

Course Code
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide

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Chapter 7 Memory
- Removed HM’s hippocampus to stop seizures and resulted in loss of long term memory processing
- Thinking is fine; can hold a normal conversation as long as there’s no distractions; learns new things
- Task: trace star while watching hand in a mirror 10x each of the 3 days improved
- Therefore: can learn new motor skills
Memory: the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit
from experience
Modal memory model: 3 stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory
- Remember millions of pieces of information, from trivial to vital; entire sense of self is that which we know from our
memories, from our recollection of personal experiences
- Memories are often incomplete, biased, and distorted
- Many sides to every story because each person stores and retrieves memory for the event in distinctive ways
- Memory is a story that can be subtly altered through telling and retellings
- Late 1960s, most psychologists viewed memory as a form of information processing (computer)
o 3 stage memory system: sensory memory, short term, long term <- modal memory model
- Psychologists now believe that there are multiple memory systems
Sensory memory: memory for sensory information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form
Visual sensory memory is also called iconic memory, auditory sensory memory is also called echoic memory
George Sperling: 3 rows of letters displayed for 1/20 of a s, asked to recall one row after awhile; worse for longer delay periods
- Echoic and iconic allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations (movie
Short term memory: a limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of time
Immediate memory: the idea that this temporary buffer consists of our fleeting thoughts, feeling and impressions of the world
- STM lasts for 20s unless you rehearse it repeatedly (telephone number)
- Must focus in order to remember
- George Miller noted STM is about 7 +/- 2 (memory span). Cowan said 4. Varies among individuals. Measure of IQ
- Organizing a string of letters into units makes it easier to remember
1. Memory span in limited to at most 7 items or fewer (letters, numbers, words, concepts)
2. Meaningful units are easier to remember than nonsense units chunking (more efficient, more you remember) (chess)
- STM is really an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information of information (sounds, images, ideas)
Working memory: an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use (problem solving,
reasoning and comprehension); the 3 components are: central executive, the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad
Central executive encodes information from the sensory systems and then filters information that is sufficiently important to be
stored in LTM; also retrieves from LTM; relied on 2 subcomponents that hold auditory and visual information temporarily
Phonological loop encodes auditory information and is active whenever you rad, speak or repeat words to yourself in order to
remember them; “inner voice”; tend to make errors with consonants that sound alike rather than look alike words are processed
in working memory by how they sound rather than by what they mean
Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual information, such as objects’ features and where they are located ( keep track of where the
dog is and if it should be watched)
Long term memory: the relatively permanent storage of information (hard drive but limitless)
- Duration and capacity separates LTM from STM
- Ability to recall iterms from the list depended on order of presentation; items presented early or late are remembered best
<- serial position effect
- Serial position effect involves: primacy effect (first items) and recency effects (last items)
- Study a list, rehearse the earliest items transferring it to LTM; last few items in STM
- Case studies of brain injury patients demonstrate that LTM can be dissociated from STM but are interdependent
- Goes into our LTM: rehearsal
Overlearning: rehearsing material that you already know pretty well, leads to improved memory, especially over longer periods of
Distributed practice: studying that is spread out over time; most efficient way to learn
Massed practice: cramming studying in a brief period of time
- However sometimes we have extremely poor memory for objects
- Only information that helps us adapt to the environment is transferred from ST to LT
- Storing meaningful information to benefit from experience
- How we decide in advance of what’s useful is explained by evolutionary theory
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