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Midterm

PSY100H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, Semantic Network


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSY100
Term Test 2 Review
Stores: retain information in memory without using it for any specific purpose
Control Processes: shift information from one memory store to another
Attention: selects which information is passed onto STM
Encoding: the process of storing information in the LTM system
Retrieval: brings information from LTM into STM
Sensory Memory: holds perceptual information for a very brief period of time
Iconic Memory: visual perceptions held for 0.5-1 second
Echoic Memory: auditory held for about 5 seconds
Change blindness: inability to spot the difference unless attention is focused
Short-term Memory: memory store with a limited capacity and for under a minute
Magical Number 7+-2
Chunking: Organizing smaller units of information into larger more meaningful
units
Long-term Memory: holds information for long periods of time if not permanently
Tip of the tongue phenomenon: ability to retrieve similar sounding words but not
the actual word - due to organization in semantic categories. Nearby nodes in the
neural network are activated.
Serial Position Effect: ability to remember the first and last few items in a list but
not the ones in between.
Primacy Effect: words have begun the process of entering into our LTM
(Hippocampus)
Recency Effect: words that are still in our STM (sensory areas of brain)
Proactive Interference: first words occupies memory leaving fewer resources for
the rest
Retroactive Interference: most recently learned information overshadows words
that have not been incorporated into LTM
Rehearsal: repetition of information until you do not need to remember it
Working memory: combination of memory components that make up the STM
Phonological Loop: storage component that relies on rehearsal and stores
information based on their sound. As many syllables that can be said in 2 seconds
stored for 15 seconds
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: storage component that maintains visual images and
spatial layouts
Feature binding: combining visual features into a single unit
Episodic buffer: storage compartment that combines images and sounds into story-
like episodes
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Central Executive: control center, coordinates exchange of information among the
three storage components. (frontal lobes)
Declarative memories: memories we are consciously aware of that can be
verbalized, including facts about the world and personal experiences
Episodic Memories: personal experiences based on episodes
Semantic memories: facts about the world.
Old people loose episodic memories faster than semantic memories
Non-declarative memories: actions and behaviors you can remember and perform
without awareness
Procedural memories: patterns of muscle/motor movements
Classical conditioning: previously neutral stimulus paired with a new response
Priming: previous exposure to a stimulus will affect an individuals later responses-
cells that wire together, fire together
Long-term potentiation: the enduring increase in connectivity and transmission of
neural signals between nerve cells that fire together strengthening od synapses
may be an underlying mechanism that allows memories to form
Consolidation: converting short term memories into long term memories in the
brain
Cellular consolidation: physical changes to the synapse so that the presynaptic cell
is more likely to stimulate a specific postsynaptic cell use it or loose it
Reconsolidation: hippocampus updates, strengthens, or modifies existing LTM’s
Cross-cortical Storage: memories are distributed throughout the cortex rather
than a localized region
Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories for events occurring after
brain injury
Retrograde Amnesia: inability to remember what was known at the onset of
amnesia
Storage: time and manner in which information is retained between encoding and
retrieval
Maintenance Rehearsal: prolonged exposure to information by repeating it
Elaborative Rehearsal: prolonged exposure to information by thinking about its
meaning
Shallow processing: superficial properties of stimulus including sound or spelling
Deep processing: an items meaning or function
STM unaffected by different levels of processing
Self-reference affect: thinking about how the information relates to you or how it
is useful to you
Recognition: identifying a stimulus or piece of information when presented
Recall: retrieving information when asked without it being present
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Recall cues: prompt memory
Encoding specificity principle: retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the
same context as encoding
Context-dependent forgetting: when a change in the environment influences
forgetting
Context-reinstatement effect: memory coming back when you return to original
location
State/Mood/Emotion Dependent memories: do not affect recognition as much as
recall.
Flashbulb memory: extremely vivid and detailed memory about an event and the
conditions surrounding about how one learnt about it
Method of loci: a mnemonic that connects words to remembered locations along a
familiar path
Dual-coding: information stored in more than one form
Testing effect: taking practice tests can improve exam performance
Schemas: organized clusters of memories that constitute ones knowledge about
events objects and ideas
Constructive memory: first recall a generalized schema and then add specific
details
Organization: information that fits into our schema is easier to recall
Distinctiveness: information that is weird and unusual thus becomes easier to
recall
Misinformation effect: when information occurring after an event becomes part of
its memory
Imagination inflation: increased confidence in a false memory of an event
following repeated imagination of the event
DRM procedure: studying a list of words that are semantically associated, most
important word missing
Recovered memory controversy: controversy regarding validity of recovered
memories
Chapter 8: Organization of Knowledge
Concept: a mental representation of an object, event or idea
Categories: clusters of interrelated concepts
Classical categorization: objects or events are categorized according to a certain
set of rules or specific se of features
Graded membership: some concepts appear to make better category members
than others
Prototypes: mental representations of an average category member
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