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2 Jan 2011
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Chapter 7 t Human Memory
* Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
x Encoding involves forming a memory code
¾ What is the Role of Attention?
¾ What are the Levels of Processing?
x Levels-of-Processing Theory: Proposes that deeper levels of processing results in longer-lasting
memory codes
¾ What is Enriching Encoding?
o Elaboration
x Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
o Visual Imagery
x Dual-coding Theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes,
since either can lead to recall
o Self-Referent Encoding
x Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant
* Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
x Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
¾ What is Sensory Memory?
x Sensory Memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a
fraction of a second
¾ What is Short-Term Memory?
x Short-Term Memory (STM): a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up
to about 20 seconds
x Rehearsal: The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information
o Durability of Storage
o Capacity of Storage
x Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
o Short-duDu}Ç^t}l]vPDu}Ç_
¾ What is Long-Term Memory?
x Long-Term Memory (LTM): unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy
periods of time
x Flashbulb Memories: which are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
¾ Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate?
¾ How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?
o Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies
x Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
x Conceptual Hierarchy: multilevel classification system based on common properties among
items
o Schemas
x Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from
previous experience with the object or event
o Semantic Networks
x Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that
link related concepts
o Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models
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Document Summary

N levels-of-processing theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes. N elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding: visual imagery. N dual-coding theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall: self-referent encoding. N self-referent encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant. N storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. N sensory memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second. N short-term memory (stm): a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds. N rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information: durability of storage, capacity of storage. N chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit: short-@k,kzjl2,k. N long-term memory (ltm): unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.

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