Chapter 7 t Human Memory
* Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
x Encoding involves forming a memory code
¾ What is the Role of Attention?
¾ What are the Levels of Processing?
x Levels-of-Processing Theory: Proposes that deeper levels of processing results in longer-lasting
¾ What is Enriching Encoding?
x Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
o Visual Imagery
x Dual-coding Theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes,
since either can lead to recall
o Self-Referent Encoding
x Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant
* Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
x Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
¾ What is Sensory Memory?
x Sensory Memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a
fraction of a second
¾ What is Short-Term Memory?
x Short-Term Memory (STM): a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up
to about 20 seconds
x Rehearsal: The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information
o Durability of Storage
o Capacity of Storage
x Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
¾ What is Long-Term Memory?
x Long-Term Memory (LTM): unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy
periods of time
x Flashbulb Memories: which are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
¾ Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate?
¾ How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?
o Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies
x Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
x Conceptual Hierarchy: multilevel classification system based on common properties among
x Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from
previous experience with the object or event
o Semantic Networks
x Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that
link related concepts
o Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models