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2 Jan 2011
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Chapter 10- Motivation and Emotion
* Motivational Theories and Concepts
x Motivation: Involves goal-directed behavior
¾ What are Drive Theories
x Homeostasis: A state of physiological equilibrium or stability
x Drive: An internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should
reduce this tension
¾ What are Incentive Theories
x Incentive: An external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior
¾ What are the Evolutionary Theories
¾ What is The Range and Diversity of Human Motives
* The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
¾ What are the Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
o Brain regulation
o Glucose and Digestive Regulation
x Glucose: A simple sugar that is an important source of energy
x Glucostats: Neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid
o Hormonal Regulation
¾ Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
o Food Availability and Related Cues
o Learned Preferences and Habits
o Stress and Eating
¾ Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity
x Obesity: The condition of being overweight
x B}ÇD/vÆ~D/Wv]v]À]µo[Á]PZ~lP]À]ÇZ]PZ~uµ
o Genetic Predisposition
o Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise
o The Concept of Set Point
x Set-Point Theory: Proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight)
fairly stable
x Settling-Point Theory: Proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the
constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves an
equilibrium
o Dietary Restraint
o Eating Disorders
* Sexual Motivation and Behavior
¾ Determinants of Sexual Desire
o Hormonal Regulation
x Estrogens: The principal class of gonadal hormones in females.
x Androgens: The principal class of gonadal hormones in males
o Erotic Materials
¾ Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behavior
o Gender Differences in Patterns of Sexual Activity
o Gender Differences in Mate Preferences
o Criticism and Alternative Explanations
¾ The Mystery of Sexual Orientation
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