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Book notes, ch 11

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 11- Human Development Across the Life Span
* Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
x Zygote: a non-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
x Prenatal Period: Extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
¾ The Course of Prenatal Development
o Germinal Stage
x Germinal Stage: The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks
after conception
x WovWµµZoo}Á}ÆÇPvv]v}]v}Z(µ(}uZu}Z[
bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
o Embryonic Stage
x Embryonic Stage: The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the
end of the second month
o Fetal Stage
x Fetal Stage: The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
x Age of Viability: The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature pregnancy
¾ Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
o Maternal Nutrition
o Maternal Drug Use
x Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive
alcohol use during pregnancy
o Maternal Illness
* The Wondrous Years of Childhood
¾ Exploring the World: Motor Development
x Motor Development: Refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical
activities
o Basic Principles
x Cephalocaudal Trend: The head-to-foot direction of motor development
x Proximodistal Trend: The centre-outward direction of motor development
x Maturation: Development that reflects the gradual unfolding on ones genetic blueprint
o Understanding Developmental Norms
x Developmental Norms: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors
and abilities
o Cultural Variations and Their Significance
¾ Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
x Temperament: Characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
x Longitudinal Design: Investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of
time
x Cross-Sectional Design: Investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single
point in time
¾ Early and Emotional Development: Attachment
x Attachment: The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop bw infants and their caregivers
x Separation Anxiety: Emotional Distress seen in many infants when they are separated from ppl
with whom they have formed an attachment
o Patterns of Attachment
o Effects of Secure Attachment
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Description
Chapter 11- Human Development Across the Life Span * Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development N Zygote: a non-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg N Prenatal Period: Extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy The Course of Prenatal Development o Germinal Stage N Germinal Stage: The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception N 9o L9Z Zoo}Z}2LLL]LZ}ZZ]L}ZZ}KZK}ZZ[ bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother o Embryonic Stage N Embryonic Stage: The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month o Fetal Stage N Fetal Stage: The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth N Age of Viability: The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature pregnancy Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development o Maternal Nutrition o Maternal Drug Use N Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy o Maternal Illness * The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploring the World: Motor Development N Motor Development: Refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities o Basic Principles N Cephalocaudal Trend: The head-to-foot direction of motor development N Proximodistal Trend: The centre-outward direction of motor development N Maturation: Development that reflects the gradual unfolding on ones genetic blueprint o Understanding Developmental Norms N Developmental Norms: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities o Cultural Variations and Their Significance Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament N Temperament: Characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity N Longitudinal Design: Investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time N Cross-Sectional Design: Investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time Early and Emotional Development: Attachment N Attachment: The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop bw infants and their caregivers N Separation Anxiety: Emotional Distress seen in many infants when they are separated from ppl with whom they have formed an attachment o Patterns of Attachment o Effects of Secure Attachment www.notesolution.com
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