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Book notes, ch 11


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 11- Human Development Across the Life Span
* Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
x Zygote: a non-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
x Prenatal Period: Extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
¾ The Course of Prenatal Development
o Germinal Stage
x Germinal Stage: The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks
after conception
x WovWµµZoo}Á}ÆÇPvv]v}]v}Z(µ(}uZu}Z[
bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
o Embryonic Stage
x Embryonic Stage: The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the
end of the second month
o Fetal Stage
x Fetal Stage: The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
x Age of Viability: The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature pregnancy
¾ Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
o Maternal Nutrition
o Maternal Drug Use
x Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive
alcohol use during pregnancy
o Maternal Illness
* The Wondrous Years of Childhood
¾ Exploring the World: Motor Development
x Motor Development: Refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical
activities
o Basic Principles
x Cephalocaudal Trend: The head-to-foot direction of motor development
x Proximodistal Trend: The centre-outward direction of motor development
x Maturation: Development that reflects the gradual unfolding on ones genetic blueprint
o Understanding Developmental Norms
x Developmental Norms: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors
and abilities
o Cultural Variations and Their Significance
¾ Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
x Temperament: Characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
x Longitudinal Design: Investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of
time
x Cross-Sectional Design: Investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single
point in time
¾ Early and Emotional Development: Attachment
x Attachment: The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop bw infants and their caregivers
x Separation Anxiety: Emotional Distress seen in many infants when they are separated from ppl
with whom they have formed an attachment
o Patterns of Attachment
o Effects of Secure Attachment
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