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2 Jan 2011
Chapter 12- Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment
* The Nature of Personality
¾ Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness
x Personality: An ]v]À]µo[ unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
¾ Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions
x Personality Trait: A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
x Factor Analysis: In this correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related
clusters of variables
¾ The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits
1) Extraversion
2) Neuroticism
3) Openness to Experience
4) Agreeableness
5) Conscientiousness
* Psychodynamic Perspectives
x Psychodynamic Theories: Include all the diverse theories secended from the work of Sigmund
Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces
¾ &µ[ Psychoanalytic Theory
o Structure of Personality
x Id: The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure
x Pleasure Principle: Demands immediate gratification of its urges
x Ego: The decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality
x Zo]ÇW]v]oW^l}oÇP](]]}v}(Z][µPµv]o}]}µov
situations can be found
x Superego: The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what
represents right and wrong
o Level of Awareness
x Conscious: Consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
x Preconscious: contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be
x Unconscious: Contains thoughts, memoires, and desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
o Conflict and the Tyranny of Sex and Aggression
o Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms
x Defense Mechanisms: Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant
emotions such as anxiety and guilt
x Rationalization: Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
x Repression: Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
x Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some ppl or
o Development: Psychosexual stages
x Psychosexual Stages: Developmental periods with a characteristic focus that leave their mark
on adult personality
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