Book notes, ch 14

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2 Jan 2011

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Chapter 14 t Psychological Disorders
* Abnormal Behavior
¾ The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior
x Medical model: Proposes that is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
x Diagnosis: Involves distinguishing one illness from another
x Etiology: The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
x Prognosis: A forecast about the probable course of an illness
¾ Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
¾ Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders
1. Deviance
2. Maladaptive Behavior
3. Personal Distress
¾ Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders
¾ The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
x Epidemiology: The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
x Prevalence: The percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time
* Anxiety Disorders
x Anxiety Disorders: A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
¾ Generalized Anxiety Disorder
x Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any
specific threat
¾ Phobic Disorder
x Phobic Disorder: Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that
presents no realistic danger
¾ Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
x Panic Disorder: Characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur
suddenly and unexpectedly
x Agrophobia: A fear of going out to public places
¾ Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
x Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of
unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
¾ Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder
¾ Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
o Biological Factors
x Concordance Rate: Indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who
exhibit the same disorder
o Conditioning and Learning
o Cognitive Factors
o Stress
* Somatoform Disorders
¾ Somatization Disorder
x Somatization Disorder: Marked by history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be
psychological in origin
¾ Conversion Disorder
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x Conversion Disorder: Characterized by a significant loss of physical function ( with no apparent
organic basis), usually in a single organ system
¾ Hypochondrias
x Hypochondraisis: (more widely known as hypochondria) is characterized by excessive
preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness
¾ Etiology of Somatoform Disorders
o Personality Factors
o Cognitive Factors
o The Sick Role
* Dissociative Disorders
x Dissociative Disorder: A class of disorders in which ppl lose contact with portions of their
consciousness or memory, resulting in disruption in their sense of identity
¾ Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
x Dissociative Amnesia: A sudden loss of memory for important personal info that is too extensive
to be due to normal forgetting
x Dissicuative Fugue: Ppl lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal
¾ Dissociative Identity Disorder
x Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Multiple Personality Disorder): Involves the coexistence in
one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities
¾ Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
* Mood Disorder
x Mood Disorders: A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may
spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes
¾ Major Depressive Disorder
x Major Depressive Disorder: Ppl show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of
interest in previous sources of pleasure
x Dysthymic Disorder: Consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify
diagnosis of a major depressive episode
¾ Bipolar Disorder
x Bipolar Disorder (formally known as manic-depressive disorder): Characterized by the
experiences of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
x Cyclothymic Disorder: When they exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar
¾ Etiology of Mood Disorders
o Genetic Vulnerability
o Neruochemical Factors
o Dispositional Factors
o Cognitive Factors
o Interpersonal Roots
o Precipitating Stress
* Schizophrenic Disorders
x Schizophrenic Disorders: A class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized
speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
¾ General Symptoms
o Delusions and Irrational Thought
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