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Book notes, ch 16

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 16 t Social Behavior
* Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others
¾ Effects of Physical Appearance
¾ Cognitive Schemas
x Social Schemas: Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and ppl
¾ Stereotypes
x Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership
in a particular group
¾ Subjectivity in Person Perception
x Illusory Correlation: When ppl estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an
association bw social traits than they have actually seem
¾ An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person Perception
* Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
x Attributions: inferences that ppl draw about the causes of events, others behavior, and their own
behavior
¾ Internal Vs. External Attributions
x Internal Attributions: Ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and
feelings
x External Attributions: Ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental
constraints
¾ Attributions for Success and Failure
¾ Bias in Attribution
o Actor-Observer Bias
x Fundamental Attribution Error: Refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining
others behavior
o Defensive Attribution
o Self-Observing Bias
x Self- Serving Bias: The tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and ones failure to
situational factors
¾ Culture and Attributional Tendencies
x Individualism: putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining ones identity in terms of
personal attributes rather than group memberships.
x Collectivism: Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining ones identity in terms of the
groups one belongs to.
* Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
x Interpersonal Attraction: positive feelings toward another
¾ Key Factors in Attraction
o Physical Attractiveness
x Matching Hypothesis: males and females are approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely
to select each other as partners
o Similarity Effects
x Reciprocity: Liking those who show that they like you
o Reciprocity Effects
o Romantic Ideals
¾ Perspectives on the Mystery of Love
o Passionate and Compassionate Love
x Passionate Love: A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and he
agony of ecstasy of intense emotion.
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Description
Chapter 16 J Social Behavior * Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others ¾ Effects of Physical Appearance ¾ Cognitive Schemas N Social Schemas: Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and ppl ¾ Stereotypes N Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group ¾ Subjectivity in Person Perception N Illusory Correlation: When ppl estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association bw social traits than they have actually seem ¾ An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person Perception * Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior N Attributions: inferences that ppl draw about the causes of events, others behavior, and their own behavior ¾ Internal Vs. External Attributions N Internal Attributions: Ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings N External Attributions: Ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints ¾ Attributions for Success and Failure ¾ Bias in Attribution o Actor-Observer Bias N Fundamental Attribution Error: Refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavior o Defensive Attribution o Self-Observing Bias N Self- Serving Bias: The tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and ones failure to situational factors ¾ Culture and Attributional Tendencies N Individualism: putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships. N Collectivism: Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining ones identity in terms of the groups one belongs to. * Close Relationships: Liking and Loving N Interpersonal Attraction: positive feelings toward another ¾ Key Factors in Attraction o Physical Attractiveness N Matching Hypothesis: males and females are approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners o Similarity Effects N Reciprocity: Liking those who show that they like you o Reciprocity Effects o Romantic Ideals ¾ Perspectives on the Mystery of Love o Passionate and Compassionate Love N Passionate Love: A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and he agony of ecstasy of intense
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