PSY100H1 Study Guide - Master Sergeant, Groupthink, Elaboration Likelihood Model

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2 Jan 2011
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Chapter 16 t Social Behavior
* Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others
¾ Effects of Physical Appearance
¾ Cognitive Schemas
x Social Schemas: Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and ppl
¾ Stereotypes
x Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership
in a particular group
¾ Subjectivity in Person Perception
x Illusory Correlation: When ppl estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an
association bw social traits than they have actually seem
¾ An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person Perception
* Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
x Attributions: inferences that ppl draw about the causes of events, others behavior, and their own
behavior
¾ Internal Vs. External Attributions
x Internal Attributions: Ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and
feelings
x External Attributions: Ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental
constraints
¾ Attributions for Success and Failure
¾ Bias in Attribution
o Actor-Observer Bias
x Fundamental Attribution Error: Refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining
others behavior
o Defensive Attribution
o Self-Observing Bias
x Self- Serving Bias: The tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and ones failure to
situational factors
¾ Culture and Attributional Tendencies
x Individualism: putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining ones identity in terms of
personal attributes rather than group memberships.
x Collectivism: Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining ones identity in terms of the
groups one belongs to.
* Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
x Interpersonal Attraction: positive feelings toward another
¾ Key Factors in Attraction
o Physical Attractiveness
x Matching Hypothesis: males and females are approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely
to select each other as partners
o Similarity Effects
x Reciprocity: Liking those who show that they like you
o Reciprocity Effects
o Romantic Ideals
¾ Perspectives on the Mystery of Love
o Passionate and Compassionate Love
x Passionate Love: A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and he
agony of ecstasy of intense emotion.
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Document Summary

N social schemas: organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and ppl. N stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group. N illusory correlation: when ppl estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association bw social traits than they have actually seem. An evolutionary perspective on bias in person perception. N attributions: inferences that ppl draw about the causes of events, others behavior, and their own behavior. N internal attributions: ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings. N external attributions: ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints. N fundamental attribution error: refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavior: defensive attribution, self-observing bias. N self- serving bias: the tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and ones failure to situational factors.

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