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PSY100H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Descriptive Knowledge, Synesthesia, Path Integration

Course Code
Dwayne Pare
Study Guide

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PSYB57 Exam Prep Textbook Notes
The exam will cover:
-Chapters 7-10 (inclusive) from textbook and lectures
-The exam is NOT cumulative
-Is on Fri Dec 5, 2014 from 7:00pm to 10:00pm in the GYM
-Will NOT contain information from chapters 1-5, however,
there are certain topics that carry over. Know these topics!

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Chapter 7: Imagery
Time spaces: The visual experience of time units such as days of the week or months of the year
as occupying spatial locations outside the body.
Number forms: Automatically generated images of numbers in various spatial layouts external
to an individual.
Dual-coding theory: The theory that there are two ways of representing events, verbal and non-
-Each of which has its own code.
-Which system is used depends on the nature of the information.
-The units that make up the verbal system are called logogens.
oThe units containing the information underlying our use of a word; the
components of the verbal system.
oContains information underlying our use of a particular word.
-The units that make up the non-verbal system are called imagens and contain the
information that generates mental images.
oThe units containing information that generate mental images; the components of
the non-verbal system.
oImagens operate synchronously.
Imagery (Paivio’s sense): The ease with which something such as a word can elicit a mental
image – that is, “a mental picture, or sound”
-According to Paivio’s theory, words that easily elicit a mental image – that is, words with
a high degree of imagery – tend to be concrete (e.g. table), whereas words that don’t
easily elicit a mental image tend to be abstract (e.g. purpose).
Concreteness (Paivio’s sense): The degree to which a word refers to something that can be
experienced by the senses (i.e. heard, felt, smelled, or tasted)
-In other words, concreteness is the degree to which a word refers to something that can
be experienced by the senses.

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-To measure imagery and concreteness, Paivio would give participants the definitions of
those terms outlined above and have them rate words on seven-point scales anchored
either with “low imagery” and “high imagery” or “low concreteness” and “high
oIn most cases it was found that imagery and concreteness are highly correlated.
oThis led Paivio to argue that imagery and concreteness measure two aspects of the
same process because our experience of concrete events is necessarily saturated
with images.
-A concrete word can be coded by both verbal and non-verbal systems, whereas an
abstract word will tend to be coded only by the verbal system because it is not likely to
elicit much of an image.
oSince concrete words are coded in two systems, it means that these types of words
are more easily available to memory than an abstract word that is coded in only
one system. (205)
Left and right hemispheres theory: The theory that the left hemisphere of the brain controls
speech and is better at processing verbal material than the right hemisphere, which is better at
non-verbal tasks.
-Right hemisphere: face identification and discrimination, recognition of nonverbal
sounds, and memory for faces and spatial patterns.
Lexical decision task: A task in which participants mush indicate whether or not a stimulus is a
Mnemonic techniques: Procedures used to aid memory.
Method of loci: A mnemonic technique based on places and images.
Distinctiveness hypothesis: The hypothesis that the more distinctive the item is, the easier it
will be to recall.
The finding that bizarre items are memorable when they occur together with common items is
reminiscent of a long-standing phenomenon called the von Restorff effect.
-If one item in a set is different from the others, it will be more likely to be recalled.
-Their distinctiveness from other the other items makes them memorable.
Humorous items were more memorable than weird items and this raised the possibility of a
connection with the effect of bizarreness.
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