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LEARNING AND REWARD
Learning: a relatively enduring in behaviour that results from experience
which may benefit organisms by adapting their behaviour to their environment.
Conditioning: connecting environmental stimuli with a behavioural response.
Classical Conditioning: associating two events or stimuli : learning that the
occurrence of one event will be coupled with another. Ex: if you walk in the
rain, you will get wet.
Operant Conditioning: learning that a specific behaviour leads to a particular
outcome. Ex: Altering an animal’s behaviour by REWARD & punishment*bf.s
oBehaviour Modification: operant conditioning on humans
Couple a neutral stimulus NS (one which does not produce a response) with
one that elicits an unconditioned response US(one which is not learned, are
automatic) called an unconditioned stimulus. The organism will associate
the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus, and will respond to it
in the same way it responds to the US. Therefore, it becomes a conditioned
response to a conditioned stimulus: the organism has learned a response.
Acquisition: the initial learning of a behaviour. Gradual formation of an association
between US & CS
contiguity: stimuli must occur near to each other in time. (stronger if briefer
delay between CS & US)
Extinction: Unlearning behaviours when they are no longer adaptive, or when the
CS no longer predicts or occurs in conjunction with the US.
Spontaneous Recovery: ability to recover an extinguished CR (conditioned response)
quickly but temporarily when it is relevant.
Generalization: stimuli similar to but NOT identical to a CS elicit the same CR.
This is necessary because a CS is rarely experienced repeatedly in the same exact
Discrimination: ability to differentiate between similar stimuli when necessary
Second-Order Conditioning: when a CS becomes associated with stimuli that are
associated with the UR. Ex: bell = food. Bell+ square = food Square = food
Phobias: an acquired fear of a stimulus that is out of proportion to its threat
•Develop through generalization of a fear experience
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