Study Notes on SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - date not accurate

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10 Feb 2011
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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
HOW WE SEE OURSELVES
CONCEPT OF SELF: full store of knowledge about ME
SELF-AWARENESS sense of self as the object of awareness (I thinks
about ME)
SELF-SCHEMA cognitive aspect, integrated set of memories, beliefs
& generalizations about self
WORKING SELF-CONCEPT immediate experience of self
INDEPENDENT & INTERDEPENDENT SELF-CONSTRUALS do
you view yourself as fundamentally separate from or inherently
connected to others?
SELF-ESTEEM: evaluative aspect, often based on reflected appraisal, or
how they believe others view them/how others respond to them.
SOCIOMETER THEORY LEARY: Humans have an adaptive need to
belong self-esteem measures social acceptance/rejection
DEATH ANXIETY: self-esteem staves off anxiety of mortality, via
terror management theory
LIFE OUTCOMES: high self-esteem does not predict success. MAYBE
vice-versa
MENTAL STRATEGIES: we are better than average. We favouritize
anything associated with ME, we are unrealistically optimistic about our
futures.
SELF-EVALUATION:
people rate themselves by how relevant their performance is to their self-
concept & how they compare with significant people around them.
people exaggerate/publicize relationships with winners,
minimize/hide relationships with losers
OR, they feel better when reading about SUPERSTARS if
they feel that their status is attainable in the future
SOCIAL COMPARISONS:
evaluation of our actions abilities & beliefs by comparing them to those of
other people
oHigh self-esteem downward comparisons
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oLow self-esteem upward comparisons
SELF-SERVING BIASES:
Tendency to take credit for success & blame failure on outside factors
oHigh self-esteem self-serving biases, assume that criticism is
motivated by envy or prejudice
ATTITUDES GUIDE BEHAVIOUR:
SOCIALIZATION & EXPERIENCE
STRONG ATTITUDES
DISCREPANCIES DISSONANCE
oAttitude change: FESTINGER&CARLSMITH paid to say that
task was fun
oPostdecisional dissonance: focusing on positive aspects of a
choice one has made and on the negative aspects of the option
not chosen
oJustifying effort: as in HAZING justified by thinking man,
getting in here must be so awesome
PERSUASION: active, conscious effort to change attitudes by transmitting a
message
Elaboration Likelihood Model: theory that the CENTRAL ROUTE to
persuasion strong and enduring attitude changes
CREDIBILITY & PERSUASIVENESS DEPEND ON
Content: strong, logical arguments, ones that appeal to our emotions
Source: credible, attractive
Receiver
HOW WE SEE OTHERS
MAKING IMPRESSIONS: our impressions of others are affected by non-
verbal behaviours
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS: first things people notice
BODY LANGUAGE: people can make accurate judgements based on
only thin slices of behaviour (gait, tone of voice)
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