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Final

PSY100H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Sensory Neuron, Pattern Matching, Sensory MemoryPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide
Final

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PSY 100 - Lecture 1 - Fundamental Insights to Post
What is psychology?
Scientific study of behavior, thoughts and experience, and how they can be
affected by physical, mental, social and environmental factors
Fundamental Insights #1: “Reality is a story, told to us by our brains.”
1. We interact with a reality that our sensory receptor has picked up and we
neurologically constructed in our brains.
We live in our own subjective perception of the world
We interpret the world internally
2. “Our brains are artists, not mirrors.”
Our experiences do not reflect reality itself, but rather a construction, or
representation of reality.
Construction
We take bits of information, and put them into a story
Involves lots of guesswork
Basic information reaches consciousness and we blend it
Subjective representation occurs within brain
Brain gives the experience of consciousness
3. We only have access to a limited subset of reality.
o Limitations of sensory-perceptual system
o Sensitivity of sensory mechanisms
o Attention capacity (only can pay attention to a certain number of things)
PSY 100 - Lecture 2 - Fundamental Insights to Post
Fundamental Insights #1: “Reality is a story, told to us by our brains.”
1. Perception: a process of creative story-telling and inference making
Highly functional for most of the time
Allows brain to function efficiently with little cost of accuracy
Pattern matching
Brains look for a correspondence between pattern that is stored
through experience, and the patterns of sensory stimuli it is currently
experiencing
Brain use pre-existing pattern to interpret incoming signals. So if the
brain cannot decode it either guesses about it, ignore it or just sees
what it wants to see
Brain sees in the past is what it sees in the present
Processing information occurs implicitly and sub-representationally (out of our
controls)
2. Implications:
We may make errors during the construction process
Hence, we can greatly improve our experience
We live in a constructed world

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Fundamental Insights #2: Attention!
1. The importance of attention:
Determines the reality we experience
Determines how we are affected by the circumstances of our lives e.g. how
well we perform on tasks, how we react to things
2. What we pay attention to can affect what we perceive
Divided attention: paying attention to more than one stimulus at the same
time
Selective attention: focusing on one particular event or task, such as focused
studying, driving without distraction, or attentively listening to music
Pay more attention to the environment so that we can accurately
sense and perceive the information it provide
However, sometimes, when this focus is so powerful we fail to
perceive some very obvious things (inattentional blindness: a failure to
notice clearly visible events or objects because attention is directed
elsewhere)
PSY 100 - Lecture 3 - Fundamental Insights to Post
Fundamental Insights #2: Attention!
1. Bias/ stereotypes
Affects decision making and reasoning
Heavily relying on beliefs make us biased, and often so subtly that we are
unaware of these biases, and thus be led astray by our own belief-driven
expectations
Biases can create their own reality (or shape reality)
Biases alter the information we pay attention to, information we dredge up
from our memories and the meaning that we read into our experiences
Example: your love vs. your ex-boyfriend/girlfriend
2. What can we learn from our biases?
Humility
We have many biases, thus we do not see reality as it is
We have blind spots. However if everyone come together (multiple
perspectives), we may uncover our blind spots
Empowerment
As our perceptions of reality are constructed, we can control over the
process.
We can practice different ways of thinking and perceiving.
3. Primacy of attention
Determines the reality we experience
Determines how we are affected by the circumstances of our lives
Determines how well we perform on tasks
We can learn to control attention
Affects the quality of experience
Ex: wine/food tasting
Fundamental Insights #3: Everything is the same
1. What is knowledge?
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