Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
PSY (800)
PSY100H1 (400)
Final

PSY100H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 22 pages of the document.
!"#$%&'&(#)*+,-')
!
Neurons:!
./'')0&1#)23&4-56!Houses!genetic!information!!
78&,)9+''&$:6!Base!of!cell!body!will!cause!neuron!to!fire!if!enough!stimulation!is!
received!
78&,6!Transports!information!from!cell!body!to!end!of!neuron!through!
electrochemical!reactions!
;/<=&>=-,"4+>>/="6!chemicals!that!function!as!messengers!
!
3/,"&=#),/<=&,"6!receive!and!bring!information!toward!the!brain!
?&>&=),/<=&,"6!send!information!away!from!brain!to!muscles!
!
@'+-')./''"6)mount!immune!responses!in!the!brain,!remove!waste,!synchronize!
activity!of!neurons.!(10:1!ratio)!
!
?#/'+,6!insulates!axons,!facilitates!faster/efficient!firing.!
?<'>+A'/)"$'/=&"+"6!degradation!of!myelin!
!
B/">+,()!&>/,>+-'6!Neurons!initially!are!negatively!charged!by!large!concentrations!
of!chloride!ions!surrounded!by!high!concentrations!of!positive!sodium!and!
potassium!ions!on!the!outside.!
7$>+&,)!&>/,>+-'6!Ion!channels!open,!and!positive!ions!rush!in!stimulating!a!wave!of!
electrical!energy.!
9#A/=A&'-=+C/16!Active!transport!pumps!out!positive!ions!increasing!the!negative!
ion!concentration!inside!the!neuron!above!normal!levels!making!it!less!likely!to!fire.!
B/D=-$>&=#)!/=+&16!2-3ms!to!let!neuron!return!to!original!state.!
!
3#,-A"/"6!Small!space!between!nerve!endings!
3#,-A>+$).'/D>6!minute!space!between!terminal!button!and!dendrite!
!
7'')&=),&>%+,()A=+,$+A'/6!Either!neurons!fire!or!don’t!-!same!strength!each!time.!
Sensation!is!determined!by!the!rate!and!number!at!which!they!fire.!
!
Neurotransmitters:!!
E8$+>->&=#6!Increases!probability!of!neuron!to!fire!
F,%+G+>&=#6!Decreases!probability!of!neuron!to!fire!
!
B/<A>-:/6!neurotransmitters!are!reabsorbed!unto!presynaptic!cell!after!binding!
with!dendrites.!Drugs!that!decrease!reuptake!cause!prolonged/enhanced!sensations!
from!neurotransmitters.!
!
@'<>-4->/6!most!common!excitatory!neurotransmitter.!Involved!in!forming!new!
memories!
@7076!primary!inhibitory!neurotransmitter.!!

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

7$/>#'$%&'+,/6!most!widespread!neurotransmitter!in!the!body.!Important!for!
voluntary!movement,!Attention!and!memory!
H&A-4+,/6!!control!of!voluntary!movement,!rewarding!experience!
;&=/A+,/A%=+,/6!regulating!stress!responses,!arousal,!attention!and!heart!rate.!!
Epinephrine=Adrenaline!
3/=&>&,+,6!mood,!sleep,!aggression,!appetite.!Lack!of!it!causes!depression,!severe!
headaches.!
3<G">-,$/)!6!reduces!pain!
E,1&=A%+,6!reduces!pain!and!induces!pleasure!
!
!
7(&,+">"6!drugs!that!enhance!or!mimic!effects!of!neurotransmitters!
H+=/$>!–!binds!to!the!receptors!
I,1+=/$>)–!facilitates!without!physically!binding!eg.!Blocks!reuptake!
!
7,>-(&,+">"6!inhibits!the!effect!of!neurotransmitters!
H+=/$>)–!binds!to!receptors!
F,1+=/$>)–!inhibits!without!physically!binding!
!
9&=4&,/"6!Chemicals!secreted!by!endocrine!system!
9&4/&">-"+"I!Balance!of!bodily!functions!
!
9#A&>%-'-4<"6!thermostat!of!the!body!
!+><+>-=#)@'-,16!master!gland,!produces!and!sends!information!to!other!glands!to!
produce!hormones!
!
./,>=-');/=J&<")3#">/46!Brain!and!spinal!cord!
!/=+A%/=-');/=J&<")3#">/46!transmits!signals!between!brain!and!body!
3&4->+$);/=J&<")3#">/46!skeletal!muscles/sensory!neurons!
7<>&,&4+$);/=J&<")3#">/46!regulating!activity!of!organs!and!glands!
!
3#4A->%/>+$);/=J&<")3#">/46!responsible!for!fight/flight!response!–!dilated!
pupils,!increased!breathing/heart!rate!
!-=-I3#4A->%/>+$);/=J&<")3#">/46)maintains!homeostatic!balance!
!
Parts!of!the!Brain:!
!
Hindbrain:!!
?/1<''-)I!breathing,!heart!rate,!sneezing,!salivating.!!
!&,")K!wakefulness/dreaming!
B/>+$<'-=)*&=4->+&,)K!attention!and!alertness!
./=/G/''<4)K!movement,!balance,!attention,!emotions!
!
Midbrain:!
3<A/=+&=).&''+$<'<")K!orienting!visual!attention!
F,D/=+&=).&''+$<'<")K!orienting!auditory!attention!

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

!
!
Forebrain:!!
0-"-')@-,('+-!–!movement,!reward!processing!
74#(1-'-!–!emotion!
9+AA&$-4A<")K!memory!!!!!!!
9#A&>%-'-4<")K!homeostat!
L%-'-4<")K!sensory!relay!station!
!
Cerebral!Cortex;!
*=&,>-')M&G/)K!thought,!planning,!language!
!-=+/>-')M&G/)K!sensory!processing,!bodily!awareness!
N$$+A+>-')M&G/)K!visual!processing!
L/4A&=-')M&G/)K!hearing,!object!recognition,!language,!emotion!
!
.&=A<").-''&"<46!connects!hemispheres!
B+(%>)%/4+"A%/=/)K!cognitive!tasks,!visual!and!spatial!skills,!recognition!of!visual!
stimuli!
M/D>)9/4+"A%/=/)K!language!and!math!
!
3A'+>)0=-+,)E8A/=+4/,>)K!severance!of!corpus!callosum!
Patients!can!identify!matching!objects!but!cannot!verbalize!the!ones!on!the!left!
!
;/<=&A'-">+$+>#O)the!capacity!of!the!brain!to!change!and!rewire!itself!based!on!
experience!at!any!age!eg.!hippocampus!–!memory.!
!
L=-,")$=-,+-')?-(,/>+$)3>+4<'->+&,6!Disables!a!part!of!the!brain!temporarily.!
!
Neuroimaging:!
Structural!neuroimaging:!produces!images!of!different!structures!of!the!brain.!
.&4A<>/=+C/1)>&4&(=-A%#)2.L)"$-,56!x-rays!through!the!head!
?-(,/>+$)B/"&,-,$/)F4-(+,()24=+56!different!regions!shown!by!differences!in!
absorption!and!release!of!energy!
H+DD<"+&,)L/,"&=)F4-(+,(6!Measures!white!matter!pathways.!
Temporal!–!time,!Spatial!-!look!
Functional!Neuroimaging:!shows!which!parts!of!the!brain!are!active!
E'/$>=&/,$/A%-'&(=-4)2EE@56!electrodes!attached!to!scalp.!
?-(,/>&/,$/A%-'&(=-A%#)2?E@56!measures!magnetic!fields!created!by!firing!
neurons!
!&"+>=&,)E4+""+&,)L&4&(=-A%#)2!EL56!radioactive!isotope!in!blood,!regions!of!
brain!that!are!active!require!more!blood!flow!
!
!
!
!
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version