PSY100H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Implicit Attitude, Psychological Science, Confirmation Bias

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10 Apr 2011

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P - Personality, Behav - behaviour, indi - individual, W - west, E - east, ppl - people, e/ - each,
charac - characteristic, mtvn - motivation, evn - environment, attn - attention, w/in - within, org -
organization or organize, det - determine, > - more or greater, < less, sit - situation, lang -
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psych Science
-prejudice influence ppls beliefs and expectations about others, which leads to racism
-brain imaging involves assessing changes in metabolic activity in brain ex. noting where blood
flows as ppl process info (rep changes in brain activity, parts of brain involved in certain behav
and mental activities)
-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)... amgdala (detects threat), implicit attitudes test
(IAT) measured -ve attitudes toward black ppl
-personality how the env shaped e/ person in a unique way
-PS is the study of mind (mental activities, ex. thought), brain (action of nerve cells and
chemical rxn) and behav (wide variety of actions)
1) research - principles (based on advancement in knowledge based on research)
2) new biological revolution of profound significance (21st Ce) - deeper knowledge of human
mind and behav
3) mind has been shaped by evolution - linked to biology
4) mind and behav can be studied on many levels of analysis (social, indi, biological) pg. 14
Evolutionary theory - inherited adaptive value of behav and mental activity throughout the entire
history of species
Natural selection - Darwins theory, inherit charac will help them adapt to their env (an adv)
Adaptations- physical charac, skills, abilities that increases the chance of reproduction/survival
-Westerners are more analytic and break things down, whereas Easterners are more holistic in
their thinking, seeing everything as a whole
-W (emphasize their personal strengths), E (emphasize their need for self-improvement)
amusia - brain damage, cant recognize familiar tunes
Nature-nurture debate - the arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are
biologically innate or acquired through education, experience and culture
Schizophrenia - disorder in which ppl hav unusual thoughts, believing they are God
Bipolar disorder - dramatic mood swings from feeling extremely sad to euphoric (manic)
-> nurture activates nature, thus they are interwoven and inseparable
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Mind-Body problem - fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body
are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical
Descartes: dualism - philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the human body yet
Evolution Theory - Charles Darwin; natural selection process by which random mutations in
organisms that are adaptive are passed along and mutations that hinder reproduction are not.
survival of the fittest better adapted to their env will leave more offspring and more...
Introspection - a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires ppl to
inspect and report on the context of their thoughts
William Wundt; physiology and philosophy = psych
Structuralism - Edward Tichener; approach to psych based on the idea that conscious experience
can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements (mind)
Stream of consciousness - William James; a phrase coined by WJ to describe ones continuous
series of ever-changing thoughts
Functionalism - approach to psych concerned w/ the adaptive purpose or fxn, of mind and behav
progressive approach to edu - emphasized divergent thinking and creativity rather than learning
of conventional knowledge that might be incorrect anyway
Gestalt Theory - Wolfgang Kohler; based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is
diff from simply the sum of its constituent elements
phenomenological approach - referring to the totality of subjective conscious experience
Psychoanalysis - Sigmund Freud; attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into
conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed
free association - talk freely, ppl would eventually reveal the unconscious conflicts in their life
Behaviourism - emphasize the role of env-al forces in producing behav, nature vs nurture
John Watson (observable behav), BF Skinner (free will is an illusion bc everything that we do is
based on our actions)
Cognitive Psych/Revolution - higher order mental fxns, such as intelligence, thinking, language,
memory and decision making
Social Psych - focuses on power of sit and how ppl are shaped through their interactions w/
Humanistic Approach - Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow; treatment to psych disorders, ppl can
come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potentials
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Psychological Scientist - methods of science to study the brain, mind and behav
Practitioners - apply findings of psychological science in order to do such things as help ppl in
need of psych treatment (real world)
Chapter 2: Research Methodology
Steps in research:
Formulate hypothesis -> design study -> collect data -> analyze data -> disseminate results
Scientific Inquiry - has 4 basic goals, describing what happens, when it happens, what causes it
to happen, and when it happens.
Scientific Method - objective examination of the natural world
Replication - repetition of an experiment to confirm the results
Empirical Process - reflects a dynamic interaction btw 3 essential elements (theory, hypothesis,
research which is a collection of data) pg. 41
Variables - something in the world that can be measured and that can vary
Operational Definitions - quantification of a variable that allows it to be measured
Experiment - study that tests causal hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables
IV - condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on DV
DV - the measure that is affected by manipulation of IV
Confound - anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary btw diff
experimental conditions of a study
Random Assignment - procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an
experiment in which e/ participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of IV
Selection Bias - differences in rxn observed may be due to the difference in how participants are
assigned to conditions
Correlation Study - research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real
world, w/out any attempt by researcher to alter them (cannot show causation)
Third-Variable Problem - when the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the IV... cannot be
confident about another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of diff in DV
Directionality Problem - sleep and stress, an ambiguity is unknown
Descriptive Studies - (observational studies) research method that involves observing and noting
behav of ppl or other animals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behav
Naturalistic Observation - passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter
ongoing behav
Participant Behav - type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in sit
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