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Final

Exam Review

15 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Psychology Exam Review
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Psychology: study of mind, brain, and behaviour
4 Themes of Psychological Science:
1. Principles are cumulative
2. Biological Revolution
-Brain Chemistry: brain works through actions of chemicals known as neurotransmitters (communicate messages
between nerve cells)
-Human Genome: basic genetic code of the human body
-Working brain: neuroscience. There is some localization of brain processes, but many different brain regions
participate to produce behaviour and mental activity
3. Mind has been shaped by evolution (adaptive)
-Our brain has constantly been upgraded throughout history
-Culture, globalization
4. Many different levels of analysis:
-Interdisciplinary effort
-Social, individual, biological
Intellectual Origins of Psychology
-Philosophy and medicine
-Nature – nurture debate
-Environment and biology play equally important roles
Mind-body area: are the mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind simply the subjective experience of the physical brain?
Dualism: mind and body are separate yet intertwined
Scientific Foundations
-We study mental activity through systematic observation and experimentation
Structuralism: conscious experience can be broken down into its basic elements
Functionalism: concerned with the function of the brain
Gestalt Theory: the whole is different than the sum of the parts
Psychoanalysis: attempting to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness
Behaviourism: emphasizing role of environmental forces
Chapter 2 – Research Methodology
Empirical Question: theory hypothesis data
Operational definition: quantification of a variable that allows it to be measured
Confound: anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions
of a study
-A correlational study cannot show causation
3 rd
Variable problem : when experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable, therefore, we cant be sure that
another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause for the differences in the dependent variable.
Electrophysiology: measures electrical activity in the brain
www.notesolution.com
Event related potential: measures the patterns associated with specific events
Positron-emission tomography: assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream
MRI: imaging uses magnetic field
fMRI: sees how brain works while doing different tasks
5 Data-Collection Methods:
1. Observation
2. Asking people
3. Measure response/stimulus
4. Measure activity in brain
5. Use of animals
Validity: extent to which the data collected addresses the research hypothesis in the way intended
Reliability: extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions
Inferential Stats: set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers
Chapter 3 – Genetic and Biological Foundations
Nervous System: communication network that serves as foundation for all psychological activity
Synapse: site for chemical communication between neurons
3 Types of neurons:
1. Sensory neurons
2. Motor neurons
3. Inter neurons
Somatosensory: sensations experienced from within the body
Action Potential: neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal
buttons (neuronal firing)
Resting Membrane Potential: electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active
-Different charge inside and outside the neuron: polarization
Depolarization: causes change in permeability of cell membrane causes sodium to rush into neuron causes excitatory signals
-Neurons fire when cell membrane is depolarized past a certain threshold
-An action potential is generated when there are more excitatory signals, which cause depolarization
-Myelin sheath insulates sections of the axon and facilitates the passage of electrical impulses
Neurotransmitter: chemical substances that carry signals across the synaptic cleft
-Receptors receive neurotransmitters
-Reuptake, enzyme deactivation, and auto-receptors can halt influence of transmitters in the synaptic cleft
Reuptake: neurotransmitters molecules are taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons
Enzyme deactivation: when an enzyme destroys the transmitter substance in the synaptic cleft
Auto-receptors: monitor the release of neurotransmitter
Agonist: drugs that enhance actions of neurotransmitters
Antagonists: drugs that inhibit actions of neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine: motor movement and complex thought
Monoamines: arousal and motivation
GABA & Glutamate: general inhibition and excitation
www.notesolution.com
Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System: all other nerve cells in the body
-Somatic: transmits signals to CNS via nerves
-Autonomic: internal
Autonomic:
-Sympathetic: prepares body for action
-Parasympathetic: calms body down
Endocrine system: communication system uses hormones to influence thoughts, behaviours, and actions
Pituitary Gland: located at base of hypothalamus, gland that sends hormonal signals that control the release of hormones from
endocrine glands
Chapter 4 – The Brain and Consciousness
Brocas area : left frontal region of brain language
Gray Matter: segment of spinal cord dominated by cell bodies of neurons
White Matter: segment of spinal cord axons and myelin sheaths
Brainstem: most basic functions for survival
Reticular Formation: network of neural tissue within brainstem behavioural arousal and sleep-wake cycles
Cerebellum: back of brain stem coordinated movement and balance
Hypothalamus: vital functions (emotion, sex, motivation)
Thalamus: Gateway to the cortex
Hippocampus: storage of new memories
Amygdala: emotional responses and fear. Connecting memories of things to their emotions
Basal Ganglia: system of sub cortical structures planning and movement and habit learning
Nucleus Accumbens: reward activation of dopamine in nucleus accumbens each time you do something pleasurable
Cerebral Cortex: outer layer of brain tissue. Site of all complex thought, emotion, perception everything that makes us human
Occipital: vision.
-Left hemisphere gets info from right side and vice versa.
Parietal: sense of touch (primary Somatosensory cortex)
Somatosensory homunculus: where the connected areas of the body tend to be represented
Temporal: primary auditory cortex, critical for memory
Fusiform Face Area: area is active when ppl look at faces
Frontal Lobes: planning and movement. Primary motor cortex
Prefrontal Cortex: attention, working memory, decision-making, appropriate social behaviour, personality
Hemineglect: failure to notice anything on your left side
Lobotomy: deliberately damaging the frontal lobes in mentally ill patients
Plasticity: a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience, drugs, or injury
-The predestination of connections from cells that have had time to determine their identities exposes the
preprogrammed nature of brain wiring
-Detailed connections are governed by experience
-The brain can rewire itself throughout life
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Psychology Exam Review Chapter 1 Introduction Psychology: study of mind, brain, and behaviour 4 Themes of Psychological Science: 1. Principles are cumulative 2. Biological Revolution - Brain Chemistry: brain works through actions of chemicals known as neurotransmitters (communicate messages between nerve cells) - Human Genome: basic genetic code of the human body - Working brain: neuroscience. There is some localization of brain processes, but many different brain regions participate to produce behaviour and mental activity 3. Mind has been shaped by evolution (adaptive) - Our brain has constantly been upgraded throughout history - Culture, globalization 4. Many different levels of analysis: - Interdisciplinary effort - Social, individual, biological Intellectual Origins of Psychology - Philosophy and medicine - Nature nurture debate - Environment and biology play equally important roles Mind-body area: are the mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind simply the subjective experience of the physical brain? Dualism: mind and body are separate yet intertwined Scientific Foundations - We study mental activity through systematic observation and experimentation Structuralism: conscious experience can be broken down into its basic elements Functionalism: concerned with the function of the brain Gestalt Theory: the whole is different than the sum of the parts Psychoanalysis: attempting to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness Behaviourism: emphasizing role of environmental forces Chapter 2 Research Methodology Empirical Question: theory hypothesis data Operational definition: quantification of a variable that allows it to be measured Confound: anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions of a study - A correlational study cannot show causation rd 3 Variable problem: when experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable, therefore, we cant be sure that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause for the differences in the dependent variable. Electrophysiology: measures electrical activity in the brain www.notesolution.comEvent related potential: measures the patterns associated with specific events Positron-emission tomography: assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream MRI: imaging uses magnetic field fMRI: sees how brain works while doing different tasks 5 Data-Collection Methods: 1. Observation 2. Asking people 3. Measure responsestimulus 4. Measure activity in brain 5. Use of animals Validity: extent to which the data collected addresses the research hypothesis in the way intended Reliability: extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions Inferential Stats: set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers Chapter 3 Genetic and Biological Foundations Nervous System: communication network that serves as foundation for all psychological activity Synapse: site for chemical communication between neurons 3 Types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons 2. Motor neurons 3. Inter neurons Somatosensory: sensations experienced from within the body Action Potential: neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons (neuronal firing) Resting Membrane Potential: electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active - Different charge inside and outside the neuron: polarization Depolarization: causes change in permeability of cell membrane causes sodium to rush into neuron causes excitatory signals - Neurons fire when cell membrane is depolarized past a certain threshold - An action potential is generated when there are more excitatory signals, which cause depolarization - Myelin sheath insulates sections of the axon and facilitates the passage of electrical impulses Neurotransmitter: chemical substances that carry signals across the synaptic cleft - Receptors receive neurotransmitters - Reuptake, enzyme deactivation, and auto-receptors can halt influence of transmitters in the synaptic cleft Reuptake: neurotransmitters molecules are taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons Enzyme deactivation: when an enzyme destroys the transmitter substance in the synaptic cleft Auto-receptors: monitor the release of neurotransmitter Agonist: drugs that enhance actions of neurotransmitters Antagonists: drugs that inhibit actions of neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: motor movement and complex thought Monoamines: arousal and motivation GABA & Glutamate: general inhibition and excitation www.notesolution.com
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