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Lec2_

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 4 The brain and Consciousness
Epilepsy: debilitating affliction in which seizures, uncontrolled storms of electrical activity begin
in some part of brain and spread
Penfields patient undergone surgery, deactivating some regions reactivated regions closely
connected to that region
Egyptians: viewed heart as more important
Later realized brain was essential for central functioning- idea comes from those with brain injury
(roman gladiators)
Early 1900, Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim proposed theory of phrenology based on
idea that assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the human
skull
Pierre Fluorens believe brain function as one unit
Expt on bird and rodent by removing part of their brain and obs effect on behaviour
Karl Lashley used same method to identify where learning occurs
Conceded specific brain regions involved in motor control and sensory experiences
All parts of brain contributed to mental ability (Equipotentiality)
Theory discredited this day b/c brain function as parts
Paul Broca
Performed autopsy on Mr. Leborgne before death, a patient only able to say word tan
but understand language
Lesion in left brainlanguage production
Left frontal region known as Brocas area
Brain Imaging techniques available now!
What are the basic brain structures and their functions?
How brain is adaptive
First nervous system was very brief
Todays brain is best viewed as a collection of interacting neuronal circuits that have
accumulated and developed throughout human evolution
Through process of adapting to environment, brain more specialized at performing different
tasks
The spinal cord is capable of autonomous function
Spinal cord is a rope of neural tissue runs inside hollows of vertebrae from pelvis up to base
of skull
Segmented
Contain gray matter and white matter
Grey matter are cell bodies of neurons
White matter are axons and fatty sheath
Gray and white also in brain
www.notesolution.com
Sensory info from body enter spinal cord and passed up to brain
Spinal cord take action on its own
Strech reflex
Spinal reflex
Conversion of sensation in to action by neurons reflex present throughout skeletal
musculature and to maintain joint position
All muscles have stretch receptors inside them to sense changes in length
Receptors are dendritic tips of receptor neurons whose cell bodies located in spinal Cord,
stetching muscle cause receptor neurons connected to it to fire
Stretching the muscle causes the stretch receptor neurons to fire, which causes the
motor neurons to increase their firing, which contracts the muscles
The brainstem houses the basic programs of survival
Spinal cord continues into brainstem, which houses most basic programs of survival
Brainstem
House basic programs of survival: breathing, swallowing…
Perform similar functions for head as spinal cord for body
House reflexes eg. Gagging
Has nerve connecting it to skin and muscle of head and sense organs
Use reflexes of spinal cord to produce useful behaviour
Stimulating brainstem disconnected to rest of brain can allow animal to start walking
Reticular formation (part of brainstem)
Network of neurons in brainstem project up into cerebral cortex and affect arousal
Induce and terminating stages of sleep
Brainstem without brain can still walk around and show basic normal behaviour
Cerebellum is essential for movement (empathy and motor)
Little brain
Protuberance connected to back of brainstem
Supplementary brain
Lesion to different parts of cerebellum produce different effects
Cellular organization identical throughout
Important for proper motor function
Damage to little nodes at bottom cause balance problems
Damage to ridge running up its back affects walking
Damage to bulging lobes on either side cause loss of limb coordination
Allows independent and unconscious skills (eg. Ride bike and thinking what to eat for lunch)
Cognitive process eg. Making plans, rmb events, emotion
Activation of cerebellum when people experience pain or loved on experience pain
Involved in experience of empathy
www.notesolution.com
Disorder: ataxia- clumsiness and loss of motor coordination, lack of emotional response
Damage to cerebellum: change in personality, mental disorder
Subcortical structures control basic drives and emotions
Forebrain above brainstem and crebellum: 2 hemispheres
Forebrain has cerebral cortex, below is subcortical regions (lie under cortex)
Include hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia
Limbic system (border between brain stem/cerebellum and cerebral cortex)
Basic drives and emotions
Hypothalamus
Master regulatory structure, indispensable to organisms survival
Regulate vital function eg. Body temp, bp..
Drives thirst, hunger, aggression, lust
Receives input from everywhere and influence everywhere
Induce motivational drive and behaviours to satisfy need
Controls pituitary gland which controls all other glands and processes as development,
ovulation, lactation
Govern sexual and reproductive development and behaviours
Hypothalamic organization difference between men and women, influence sexual orientation
Fetal masculinization
Anterior hypothalamus smaller for homosexual man=heterosexual women
Thalamus
Gateway to cortex
Incoming sensory info go through thalamus before reaching cortex
Smell is exception, direct route to cortex bypassing thalamus
Role in attention
Shuts during sleep
Hippocampus and amygdala
Memory and emotion
Hippocampus
Storage of new memory
Change in size with increased use
Involved in how we rmb arrangement of places and objects in space and how streets laid
out
Study of taxi driver, large hippocampus
Volume of gray matter in taxi driver correlated with number of yrs of experience as
driver
Hippocampus increase volume to store more
Amygdala
In front of hippocampus
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 4 The brain and Consciousness Epilepsy: debilitating affliction in which seizures, uncontrolled storms of electrical activity begin in some part of brain and spread Penfields patient undergone surgery, deactivating some regions reactivated regions closely connected to that region Egyptians: viewed heart as more important Later realized brain was essential for central functioning- idea comes from those with brain injury (roman gladiators) Early 1900,anz Gall and Johann Spurzhproposed theory of phrenology based on idea that assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the human skull Pierre Fluorens believe brain function as one unit Expt on bird and rodent by removing part of their brain and obs effect on behaviour Karl Lashley used same method to identify where learning occurs Conceded specific brain regions involved in motor control and sensory experiences All parts of brain contributed to mental ability (Equipotentiality) Theory discredited this day bc brain function as parts Paul Broca Performed autopsy on Mr. Leborgne before death, a patient only able to say word tan but understand language Lesion in left brainage production Left frontal region known as area Brain Imaging techniques available now! What are the basic brain structures and their functions? How brain is adaptive First nervous system was very brief Todays brain is best viewed as a collection of interacting neuronal circuits that have accumulated and developed throughout human evolution Through process of adapting to environment, brain more specialized at performing different tasks The spinal cord is capable of autonomous function Spinal cord is a rope of neural tissue runs inside hollows of vertebrae from pelvis up to base of skull Segmented Contain gray matter and white matter Grey matter are cell bodies of neurons White matter are axons and fatty sheath Gray and white also in brain www.notesolution.com Sensory info from body enter spinal cord and passed up to brain Spinal cord take action on its own Strech reflex Spinal reflex Conversion of sensation in to action by neurons reflex present throughout skeletal musculature and to maintain joint position All muscles have stretch receptors inside them to sense changes in length Receptors are dendritic tips of receptor neurons whose cell bodies located in spinal Cord, stetching muscle cause receptor neurons connected to it to fire Stretching the muscle causes the stretch receptor neurons to fire, which causes the motor neurons to increase their firing, which contracts the muscles The brainstem houses the basic programs of survival Spinal cord continues into brainstem, which houses most basic programs of survival Brainstem House basic programs of survival: breathing, swallowing Perform similar functions for head as spinal cord for body House reflexes eg. Gagging Has nerve connecting it to skin and muscle of head and sense organs Use reflexes of spinal cord to produce useful behaviour Stimulating brainstem disconnected to rest of brain can allow animal to start walking Reticular formation (part of brainstem) Network of neurons in brainstem project up into cerebral cortex and affect arousal Induce and terminating stages of sleep Brainstem without brain can still walk around and show basic normal behaviour Cerebellum is essential for movement (empathy and motor) Little brain Protuberance connected to back of brainstem Supplementary brain Lesion to different parts of cerebellum produce different effects Cellular organization identical throughout Important for proper motor function Damage to little nodes at bottom cause balance problems Damage to ridge running up its back affects walking Damage to bulging lobes on either side cause loss of limb coordination Allows independent and unconscious skills (eg. Ride bike and thinking what to eat for lunch) Cognitive process eg. Making plans, rmb events, emotion Activation of cerebellum when people experience pain or loved on experience pain Involved inrience of empathy www.notesolution.com
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