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Ch6__

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 6
HOW DID BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF LEARNING DELVELOP
Behavioural responses are conditioned:
Pavlov: principles of classical conditioning: association made between stimuli and
response (two type of events go together)—walking in rain get wet
Operant conditioning: behavior leads to a particular outcome: studying lead to better
grades
Little albert: conditioned with loud sound with rat
Watson against freuds unconscious theory, founded school of beavhiourism: belief that animals
and humans are born with potential to learn anything
Kid born with knowing nothing, all knowledge is acquired through sensory experience,
depend on environment and effects
give me a dozen children, and give me the environment, I can make them into any type of
specialist
Pavlov salivary reflex
Measuring dogs saliva
Neutral stimulus: ringing bell + stimulus: food = conditioning trial
Sound of bell produces salivation= classical conditioning
Classical conditioning: when neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is
associated with a stimulus that already produces the response
Food=unconditioned stimulus + saliva=unconditioned response b/c both occur without
having to be trained
Bell=conditioned stimulus + saliva when only bell present= conditioned response ; learned
Conditioned response is less stronger than unconditioned response
Another example is movie, scary music nervous, tense
Acquisition: both conditioned and unconditioned stimulus occurring together contiguity
Extinction: unlearn the process, food no longer appears after each ring
Conditioned response is extinguished
Spontaneous recovery, if US again presented together with CS
Stimulus generalization occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS
produces CR can get animal responding as well
Stimulus discrimination: 2 similar species; one is poisonous; animal need to learn to tell
difference
2nd order conditioning: CS associated with another CS which associates with US
Black square presented with bell ringing black square later leads to salivation
Phobia and Addictions have learned components
Animals classically conditioned to fear neutral objects= fear conditioning
www.notesolution.com
Light together with electric shock when see light, will fear
Brain structure for fear conditioning = AMYGDALA
Counterconditioning:
Expose to small doses of feared stimulus while engage in pleasurable task overcome fear
Treatment of phobia: systematic desensitization: relaxing muscle while imagining fear
Fear connection broken by developing relaxation connection
Drug addiction:
Smell of coffee arousal
Heroin addicts inject themselves with water because needle becamse CS
Classical conditioning involves more than contiguity
Strength of association was determined by factors such as intensity of the conditioned and
unconditioned stimuli
Greater intensity associated with increased learning
Not all stimuli are equipotent
Poisonous food learned more quickly with taste and smell than light and sound
Harder for monkey to fear flower than to fear snake
BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS-explains why animals fear somethings and not others
Robert Rescorla: for learning to take place, conditioned stimulus need to be an accurate
predictor of the unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus that occurs before the US is more easily conditioned than one that comes after
it
Rescorla-wagner model: strength of CS-US association is determined by extent to which US is
unexpected or surprising
The greater the surprise the US, the more effort an organism puts into trying to
understand its occurrence so that it can predict it more accurately in the future
Conditioning is a process by which organisms learn to expect the unconditioned
stimulus based on the conditioned stimulus
Eg. Electronic can opener is broken instead you open with twisting opener, dog
soon learns to look for wrist movement compared to can opener sounds
Novel stimuli more easily associated with unconditioned stimulus than are familiar
stimulai
Dog conditioned more easily with almond than with dog food
Blocking effect: no longer look for other predictors
Occasion setter: dog only look for smell of almond to predict food when
theres a random sound
Operant conditioning:
Consequence of action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
Thorndike: law of effect- any behaviour that leads to a satisfying state of affairs is more
likely to occur again, if leads to annoying state of affairs, less likely to occur again
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 6HOW DID BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF LEARNING DELVELOPBehavioural responses are conditionedPavlov principles of classical conditioning association made between stimuli and response two type of events go togetherwalking in rain get wetOperant conditioning behavior leads to a particular outcome studying lead to better gradesLittle albert conditioned with loud sound with ratbelief that animals Watson against freuds unconscious theory founded school of beavhiourism and humans are born with potential to learn anythingKid born with knowing nothing all knowledge is acquired through sensory experience depend on environment and effectsgive me a dozen children and give me the environment I can make them into any type of specialistPavlovsalivary reflex Measuring dogs salivaNeutral stimulus ringing bellstimulus foodconditioning trialSound of bell produces salivation classical conditioningClassical conditioning when neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces the responseFoodunconditioned stimulussalivaunconditioned response bc both occur without having to be trainedBellconditioned stimulussaliva when only bell present conditioned responselearnedConditioned response is less stronger than unconditioned responseAnother example is movie scary music nervous tenseAcquisition both conditioned and unconditioned stimulus occurring together contiguityExtinction unlearn the process food no longer appears after each ringConditioned response is extinguishedSpontaneous recovery if US again presented together with CSStimulus generalization occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS produces CR can get animal responding as wellStimulus discrimination 2 similar species one is poisonous animal need to learn to tell differencend2 order conditioning CS associated with another CS which associates with USBlack square presented with bell ringing black square later leads to salivationPhobia and Addictions have learned componentsAnimals classically conditioned to fear neutral objects fear conditioningwwwnotesolutioncom
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