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ch7__

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 7 Memory
Man receive brain seizure to relieve epilepsy
Surgery to remove temporal lobe including hippocampuslost his memory
Cannot rmb new info, but can recall past, and able to learn new motor skills (eg. Trace star
looking at mirror, better performances after 3 days of practice)
Memory: capacity of nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allow
organisms to benefit
Memory is biased and incomplete and distorted
What are the basic stages of memory?
3 stages memory system (modal/standard memory model)- by Atkinson
Sensory, short-term, long term memory (pg 252)
Sensory memory is brief/temporary
Visual sensory memory=iconic memory
Auditory sensory memory=echoic memory
3 rows of letter test: asked to recall one row, performance worsen after several seconds
Iconic memory last for 1/3 second before trace faded
Iconic and echoic allow us to experience world as continuous stream
Short Term Memory (STM) is Active
Passed from sensory memory to short term
Immediate memory: thoughts and impression of world
RAM of computer: handle small amt info
Replaced by new info continuously
No longer than 20 s of info holding
Eg. Rmb XCJ but disrupted by counting 309 for 18 s, cant rmb anymore
Memory span and chunking
7 items+/- 2 is our memory span
One item can be one letter, one number, 3 numbers, one word
Meaningful units are easier to rmb: chunking
Ability to memorize chess board
Working memory
Model of 3 part active memory system called working memory
Working memory is active processing system that keeps info available so can be used for
activity such as problem solving, reasoning, comprehension
Central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad
Central executive filters info thats important to go to long term memory and retrieves
info from long term meory, relies on the auditory and visual info
Phonological loop is active when were reading,m speakinjg, or repeat words to ourself
to rmb them inner voice”
People process words by how they sound not what they mean (eg. Poorer memory for
www.notesolution.com
consonants that sound alike)
Visuospatial sketchpad processes location
Pg. 254 fig 7-4
Long term memory(LTM) is relatively permanent
Hard disk
Human LTM is limitless
Distinct from STM in 2 ways
Better memory of words shown early and late than middle ones
This is serial position effect made up of primacy effect and recency effect
Primacy due to LTM and recency due to STM
Debate for whether recency b/c STM because things from week ago can be rmb
Case studies show LTM can dissociate from STM, but both are highly
interdependent
Info in STM can form meaningful connections with LTM
What gets into Long term memory
Distributed practice better than mass practice when studying for exam
Seeing many times doesnt mean it gets into LTM (eg. Which penny is correct)
Info that helps us adapt to environment gets transferred from STM to LTM: storing info thats
useful (eg. Exact penny appearance is not useful)
What are the different memory systems?
Memory is not a single process
Behavioral component and conscious effort
How info stored: with or without effort
Types of info stored: word/meaning vs. muscle movement
Explicit memory involves conscious effort
Memorized with effort
Explicit memory: process used to rmb specific info
Declarative memory: info/memory retrieved
Similar terms
Episodic memory: ones personal past experience
Semantic memory: knowledge of trivial or fact independent of personal experience (eg.
Capital city)
These are separate systems (evidence by brain injury)
Implicit memory occurs without deliberate effort
Memorize without effort
Daily things: brushing teeth
Doesnt require attention
Daydream when driving
Procedural (motor)memory is an example of implicit memory
www.notesolution.com
Ride bicycle following traffic
Constant exposure to ads remind us of brand names
False fame effect: famous peoples names rmb wrongly
Repetition priming: improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously
been experienced.
Eg. Count number of letter in each word: appearance, chestnut, patent. Now complete
the word with app__, che___& pat___
How is Info organized in LTM?
Long term memory is a temporal sequence
Encoding, storage, retrieval
Encoding
Perceptual exp transformed into representations/codes
Eg.visual system sensing shaggy, four leged animal, auditory system hearing bark,
you perceive dog
Dog is mental represenatation
Storage
Retention of encoded representations over time
Include different kinds of info like visual image,, facts
Retrieval
Act of recalling or remembering stored info
Involves explicit effort and implicit effort
Long term storage is based on meaning
Maintenance rehearsal: repeating over and over again
Elaborative rehearsal: encoding info in meaningful way, linking to already stored knowledge
Pg 263 figure 7-7
Participants asked to consider list of words: printed, sounded, meaning(semantic)
Semantic leads to better memory
Schemas provide an organizational framework
Schema: hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, use info
Sort out info
Make sense of world, but can lead to biased encoding
Bartletts expt: repeat story (like broken telephone), people changed story to make sense in
their own cultural standpoint
Tell you its Helen keller, vs. some random name and tell the story
Info is stored in association networks
Networks of associations:
Each unit of info is a node , connected to other nodes
Spreading activation models of memory: activate nodes to relate
Fire engine: all features fired up
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Description
Chapter 7 Memory Man receive brain seizure to relieve epilepsy Surgery to remove temporal lobe includinglost his memory Cannot rmb new info, but can recall past, and able to learn new motor skills (eg. Trace star looking at mirror, better performances after 3 days of practice) Memory: capacity of nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allow organisms to benefit Memory is biased and incomplete and distorted What are the basic stages of memory? 3 stages memory system (standard memory model)- by Atkinson Sensory, short-term, long term memory (pg 252) Sensory memory is brieftemporary Visual sensory memory=iconic memory Auditory sensory memory=echoic memory 3 rows of letter test: asked to recall one row, performance worsen after several seconds Iconic memory last for 13 second before trace faded Iconic and echoic allow us to experience world as continuous stream Short Term Memory (STM) is Active Passed from sensory memory to short term Immediate memory: thoughts and impression of world RAM of computer: handle small amt info Replaced by new info continuously No longer than 20 s of info holding Eg. Rmb XCJ but disrupted by counting 309 for 18 s, cant rmb anymore Memory span and chunking 7 items+- 2 is our memory span One item can be one letter, one number, 3 numbers, one word Meaningful units are easier to rmb: chunking Ability to memorize chess board Working memory Model of 3 part active memory system called working memory Working memory is active processing system that keeps info available so can be used for activity such as problem solving, reasoning, comprehension Central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad Central executive filters info thats important to go to long term memory and retrieves info from long term meory, relies on the auditory and visual info Phonological loop is active when were reading,m speakinjg, or repeat words to ourself to rmb them inner voice People process words by how they sound not what they mean (eg. Poorer memory for www.notesolution.com
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