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Ch9__

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 9 Motivation
Motivation: factors that energize direct or sustain behaviour
Motivational states are:
Energizing (arouse behaviour)
Directive (guide behaviour toward satisfying goals or needs, eg. Hunger and eating)
help people persist behaviour until goal achieved
motives differ in strength
Needs, Drives, and Arousal motivate behaviour
we have needs, failure to satisfy needs lead to physical or psychosocial impairment
Need hierarcy: survival needs lowest, personal growth needs are highest, must have basic
needs met before achieving higher needs
Humanistic psychology: we desire food, not our stomach
Self-actualization: person achieves dream and aspiration
Stronger the need, greater motivation to satisfy it
Drives
Drives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs (arousal)
Arousal: physiological activation or increased autonomic response (quick heart rate, increase
sweating)
Basic drives help animals maintain equilibrium (homeostasis)--- negative feedback model
Set point indicates homeostasis
Needdrivebehaviour (nutrient, hunger, eating)
if a behaviour constantly reduces a drive, it becomes a habit
Hulls theory on Principle of behaviour explains why people do things that dont satisfy their
biological needs
Incentives are external objects rather than internal drives that motivate behaviour
Why people stay up to study for exam
Arousal and performance
Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after which
it decreases with increasing arousal, thus creating an inverted U shape
Optimal amount of arousal is desirable
Pleasure can motivate adaptive behaviours
Animals persist in act that gives pleasure, resist from those that gives pain
Hedonism  and adaptiveness
Behaviours associated with pleasure often promote animal survival and reproduction
Reward due to activation of dopamine neuron
Some behaviours are motivated for their own sake
www.notesolution.com
Extrinsic motivation: external goals toward which that activity is directed
Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform activity that has biological goal
Autonomy continuum: external, Introjected regulation, identified/integrated regulation, intrinsic
regulation
1. Extrinsic and intrinsic are separate systems
2. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation often work in concert, but not always!!!
Football, math example
3. extrinsic motivation undermines (-) intrinsic
Going for awards and stuff sometimes sucks the joy out of it OR
Even though always fail, still loves the game of football
Punish children and helping them to learn how to avoid punishments
Children dont instill good meaning of the action by getting the reward, they do action again to get
the reward, not its moral values
4. multiple factors determine whether E will undermine I
Strength of motivator
Freedom
Environment
Expectation..
5. how to get E not to undermine I
Appropriate award
Use E at beginning and then slowly shift focus back to I
Make things fun and emphasize I
Nurture basic capacity for intrinsic motivation
Not make everything a competition
Let people do things theyre not good at yet
Peer influence
Autonomy
Reframe acitivity to align with own goals
Curiosity and play
Curiousness and play help people adapt to environment
Kids exposed to materials later used in a problem solving task do better than those not
exposed
Creativity and problem solving
Creativity is an integral component of solving adaptive problems
Rewarding intrinsic motives
Extrinsic reward can undermine intrinsic motivation and decrease likelihood people will
perform the rewarded behaviour
Extrinsic reward sometimes reduce intrinsic value
Extrinsic rewards can be used to make boring tasik seem worth pursuing
Why are human beings social?
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9 MotivationMotivation factors that energize direct or sustain behaviourMotivational states areEnergizing arouse behaviourDirective guide behaviour toward satisfying goals or needs eg Hunger and eatinghelp people persist behaviour until goal achievedmotives differ in strengthNeeds Drives and Arousal motivate behaviourwe have needs failure to satisfy needs lead to physical or psychosocial impairmentNeed hierarcy survival needs lowest personal growth needs are highest must have basic needs met before achieving higher needsHumanistic psychology we desire food not our stomachSelfactualization person achieves dream and aspirationStronger the need greater motivation to satisfy itDrivesDrives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs arousalArousal physiological activation or increased autonomic response quick heart rate increase sweatinghomeostasis negative feedback modelBasic drives help animals maintain equilibrium Set point indicates homeostasisdrivebehaviour nutrient hunger eatingNeedif a behaviour constantly reduces a drive it becomes a habitHulls theory on Principle of behaviour explains why people do things that dont satisfy their biological needsIncentives are external objects rather than internal drives that motivate behaviourWhy people stay up to study for examArousal and performanceYerkesDodson Law performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point after which it decreases with increasing arousal thus creating an inverted U shapeOptimal amount of arousal is desirablePleasure can motivate adaptive behavioursAnimals persist in act that gives pleasure resist from those that gives painHedonism and adaptivenessBehaviours associated with pleasure often promote animal survival and reproductionReward due to activation of dopamine neuronSome behaviours are motivated for their own sakewwwnotesolutioncom
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