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Ch8__

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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chapter 8 Thinking and intelligence
How does the mind represent info
Cognition: mental activity such as thinking or representing info
2 types of representation:
analogical representation: mental representation of physcial characteristics of object
symbolic representation: abstract mental representation that does not correspond to physical
features (eg. knowing the word violin stands for a instrument)
Mental images are analogical representations
study:
mirror image of R, the further the degree of rotation, the longer it takes to tell if it's a mirror
image or not
stephen kosslyn's study: time took to imagine shifting one's gaze between two points on map
increased with actual distance between the points
meaning visual imagery is associated with perception related areas (primary visual cortex)
these areas provide spatial aspects
damage to temporal cortex (for processing appearance of object), does not affect locating
object
limits of analogical representations????
things that cannot be perceived by perceptual system, we cannot have representation of it
Concepts are symbolic representations
our knowledge about the object, knowledge based on concept which is the way we calssify
the object based on attributes, prototypes, exemplars
words and abstract ideas, what to do with the object
catergorization
concept: mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around
common themes
defining attribute model: idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are
necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category eg. Bachelor=unmarried male
subcategories
shortcomings of attribute model, same categories but still different (20 man vs. 40 year old
man as bachelor)
prototype model: within each category, some members of a particular category are more
representative or prototypical of that category than other members--- not all members in a
category will have same attributes
prototypes let boundaries to be imprecise (eg. Tomato a fruit or veggie)
allow additional flexibility in representation of concept
exemplar model: no best representation of a concept
prototypical members are simply ones encounter more often
www.notesolution.com
Schema organize useful info about the environment
schema help us perceive, organize, process info
we develop schemas about different types of real life situations that we encounter
scripts operate at unconscious level in guiding our behaviour, so we know what to do in
different situations
elements of schemas
common situations have consistent attributes (quite in library)
people have roles iwtin each context
script dictate “appropriate” behaviour, behaviour shaped by culture
schema is important in that they minimize amt of attention required to negotiate within a
familiar environment
How do we make decisions and solve problems?
People use deductive and inductive reasoning
reasoning to evaluate info, argument, to draw conclusion
inductive reasoning: reasoning from specific to general (eg. Decide San Francisco is a nice
city because 5 people met from there are nice)
deductive reasoning: general to specific (eg. Expect someone from san fransisco to be
friendly)
Deductive reasoning
determine if a conclusion in a specific case can be drawn or deduced from a set of more
general initial premises
conditional syllogism: if A is true, B is true (eg. You like thai food, then you’ll like the
restaurant)
categorical syllogism: all A are B, all B are C, therefore, all A are C (I am a person, all
persons are mammal, therefore I am a mammal)
sometimes it can be invalid (all people from san are friendly, some friendly people like thai
food, therefore, san people like thai food)
some ambiguity in word choice and from our prior beliefs may exist
Inductive reasoning
induce general conclusion from specific instances
Decision making often involves heuristics
decision making influenced by normative approaches and descriptive approaches
normative model: expected utility theory break down to utility (overall value for each
outcome)
rank alternatives based on desirability
common heuristics (shortcuts used to minimize amt of thinking that must be done to readch
solution used in problem solving)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
chapter 8 Thinking and intelligence How does the mind represent info Cognition: mental activity such as thinking or representing info 2 types of representation: analogical representation: mental representation of physcial characteristics of object symbolic representaabstract mental representation that does not correspond to physical features (eg. knowing the word violin stands for a instrument) Mental images are analogical representations study: mirror image of R, the further the degree of rotation, the longer it takes to tell if its a mirror image or not stephen kosslyns study:ook to imagine shifting ones gaze between two points on map increased with actual distance between the points meaning visual imagery is associated with perception related areastex) these areas provide spatial aspects damage totemporal cor(for processing appearance of object), does not affect locating object limits of analogical representations???? things that cannot be perceived by perceptual system, we cannot have representation of it Concepts are symbolic representations our knowledge about the object, knowledge based on concept which is the way we calssify the object based on attributes, prototypes, exemplars words and abstract ideas, what to do with the object catergorization concept: mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around common themes defining attribute model: idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category eg. Bachelor=unmarried male subcategories shortcomings of attribute model, same categories but still different (20 man vs. 40 year old man as bachelor) prototype modewithin each category, some members of a particular category are more representative or prototypical of that category than other members---a category will have same attributes prototypes let boundaries to be imprecise (eg. Tomato a fruit or veggie) allow additional flexibility in representation of concept exemplar modeno best representation of a concept prototypical members are simply ones encounter more often www.notesolution.com
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