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ch11_

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 11 Human Development
Genies case
Developmental psychology: the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behaviour
over the life span
What shapes a child?
Sleep on back vs sleep on stomach
Sleep on stomach learned to crawl faster
Nature and nurture
Development starts in the womb
1st two months: embryo, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, sex organ, nervous system begins to form
After two months, its called fetus
Physical development
Brain nerve cell develop in specific sequence in first 7 months of gestation
Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain begin to form by week 4
Cortex by week 7
Thalamus, hypo by week 10
Basal ganglia and left and right hemisphere by week 12
Brain continues to develop thru childhood into adulthood
If mothers thyroid does not produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones, fetus at risk for
lower IQ
High stress in mother produce low birth weight and other negative baby syndromes
Maternal hormones play important role in autism
Teratogens
Exposing to teratogens at week 4 interferes with brain development
Thalidomide
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Brain development promotes learning
Develop specific areas and functions
Brain communicate through synaptic connections
Myelinated axons form synapses with other neurons
Synaptic pruning: a process whereby synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently
used are preserved and those that are not are lost
Malnourished children have less myelination, and less energy to interact with others,
undermines brain development
Both nature and nurture affect physical brain growth
Critical learning periods
The time in which certain exp must occur for normal brain development such as exposure to
visual info during infancy for the normal development of the visual pathways of the brain
www.notesolution.com
Genie and language acquisition, she missed the most sensitive period, and therefore still show
some language acquisition at later age, but plateaus quickly
Attachment promotes survival
Innate repertoire of attachment behaviors that motivate adult attention like lifting arms to be
hugged
Adult use higher pitch and exaggerated facial expression
Attachment across species
Mother as food provider
Monkey experiment (Harlows)
Mother as food theory of mother child attachment was debunked
Monkey preferred blanket mom as a source of attachment even when food was provided by
the wire monkey
Attachment style
Strange situation test:
Secure attachment: 65% caregiver there, be friendly to stranger, caregiver leaves, child
distressed cry
Avoidant attachment:25% no distress seen, can be comforted by stranger, when caregiver
returns, no reunion
Anxious ambivalent attachment:10-15% anxious throughout the test, cling on to caregiver
the whole time
Chemistry of attachment
Oxytocin play role in maternal tendencies, feeling of bonding, sexual gratification
Oxytocin facilitates milk release, and infant attachment to mother
Parental style can affect childrens wellbeing
Fit between childs temperament and parents behaviours is important in determining so
called development
If child shows temper and parent shows temper too, lead to negative outcomes
If child shows temper, parent is calm, good outcomes
These parents managed to cope with their own feelings of frustration and disappointment
Overprotectiveness can encourage a childs anxiety in response to new situations and
increasing childs distress
Parents that are especially nurturing tend to raise children who experience more social
emotions like guilt because more empathetic attitude is encouraged
Parents decide neighborhood, schoolwhich also influence children
Amount of physical activity vs. television also influences
How do children learn about their worlds?
Perception introduces the world
Preferential looking technique: infants look at new stimuli than similar ones
www.notesolution.com
Orienting reflex: tendency for humans to may more attention to novel stimuli
Habituation allows researchers to see how long babies look at new stimuli for before they
switch onto something else, can measure their attention if the stimuli changes form….
Measure their perceptual ability
Vision
Black and white stripes vs. grey area, baby prefer bold strips
The thinner the stripes, the similar it is to the grey area, and baby spend same amount of time
looking at both
When first born, not good with looking at distant objects
Gets better as visual cortex develops and cones in retina develops
Stereograms work because we see one view of an image with one eye and another view with
another, this tests if baby can see 3 D, or have binocular disparity. If they can see it, their
eyes will move with the picture, if they cant see it, they’ll see a bunch of dots
Auditory perception in infants
Can recognize sounds theyve heard before
Hearing matures at 6 months
Baby changed sucking patterns if hear different version of cat in the hat than what they heard
in the womb
Piaget Emphasized Stages of Development
Learning is a dynamic process of Assimilation & Accommodation
Different stages of cognitive development
Schema: conceptual models of how world works
Assimilation: process by which a new experience is placed into an existing schema(changing
exp)
Accommodation: process by which a schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate a new
experience that does not easily fit into an existing schema(changing schema)
PIAGETS 4 STAGES
Sensorimotor stage (birth to two years)
First two years, acquire info from their senses only
Understand what actions can be performed on certain kinds of objects
Sucking on bottle is ok, so they figure they can suck on other stuff like finger, toy.. this
is assimilation
But sucking on toy or blanket seems different from the feel of nipple or finger, so there
comes accommodation
Now baby learn they can manipulate objects to understand them and not only simply
reacting to them
Object permanence: an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
if hide object under a blanket, child knows to search for it by 9 months, but limit is if its
under a different blanket, child will still search for the old blanket
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 11 Human Development Genies case Developmental psych: the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behaviour over the life span What shapes a child? Sleep on back vs sleep on stomach Sleep on stomach learned to crawl faster Nature and nurture Development starts in the womb 1 two months: embryo, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, sex organ, nervous system begins to form After two months, its called Physical development Brain nerve cell develop in specific sequence in first 7 months of gestation Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain begin to form by week 4 Cortex by week 7 Thalamus, hypo by week 10 Basal ganglia and left and right hemisphere by week 12 Brain continues to develop thru childhood into adulthood If mothers thyroid does not produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones, fetus at risk for lower IQ High stress in mother produce low birth weight and other negative baby syndromes Maternal hormones play important role in autism Teratogens Exposing to teratogens at week 4 interferes with brain development Thalidomide Fetal alcohol syndrome Brain development promotes learning Develop specific areas and functions Brain communicate through synaptic connections Myelinated axons form synapses with other neurons Synaptic pruning: a process whereby synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lost Malnourished children have less myelination, and less energy to interact with others, undermines brain development Both nature and nurture affect physical brain growth Critical learning periods The time in which certain exp must occur for normal brain development such as exposure to visual info during infancy for the normal development of the visual pathways of the brain www.notesolution.com
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