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ch13_

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Mental disorders have many causes
Table 13.1
Psychological factors
Family systems model
Behaviour of an individual must be considered iwhtin a social context, family
Problems with individual are due to family problems
Social cultural model
Psychopathology as result of interaction between individuals and cultures
Eg. Schizophrenia most common in low classes
Anorexia nervosa more common in upper clsses
Cognitive behavioural factors
Cognitive havioural approach is that abnormal behaviour is learned
Fears are learned rather than innate
strict behaviourism argue mental disorders are result of classical and operant conditioning
thoughts can be considered as behaviour, they can become distorted and produce maladaptive
behaviours and emotions
thought processes are believed to be available to the conscious mind
biological factors
how physiological factors like genetics contribute to mental illness]]
maternal illness because fetus is vulnerable
brain imaging reveal brain regions of mental illness
Integrating the factors involved in mental disorders
mental disorder=interaction among multiple factors
diathesis-stress model proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability
is coupled with a precipitating event
this predisposition can be biological or environmental
family history suggests vulnerability rather than destiny
The legal system has its own definition of psychopathology
issue of personal responsibility for actions
notion of insanity is legal not psychological
Hinckley and insanity defense
Later law changed that defendant has to prove theyre insane at the time rather that the
opposite having to prove that they were sane
Can anxiety be the root of seemingly different disorders?
Excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger
Normal to be anxious in stressful situations, abnormal to feel anxious without cause
There are different types of anxiety disorders
Arousal of nervous sytem
www.notesolution.com
Different anxiety disorder
Phobic disorder
Fear of specific object or situation
Fear is exaggerated and out of proportion to the actual danger
Specific phobia (simple phobia)-snake, height
Social phobia- negatively evaluated by others, fear of speaking…
Specific phobia is more common
Generalized anxiety disorder
Anxiety is diffuse and omnipresent
Constant anxious and worry about minor mateters
Anxiety not focused, and respond to any thing
Constant alert for problems
Hypervigiland results in distractibility, fatigue..
3-4 % population is affected by this disorder
Women more likely
Panic disorder
Affects 3% population
Women more likely
Sufferer experience attacks of terror that are sudden overwhelming
Panic out of nowhere
Agoraphobia: fear of being in situation in which escape is difficualt or imposible, crowded
place
Cause panic attack
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
Frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive action
2-3% population
Obsessions are intrusive unwanted ideas
Compulsion feel drive to perform over and over again
Disorder like cleaning, checking, counting…
Make sure locked door…
Anxiety disorders have cognitive, situational, biological components
Threatening events are more easily recalled
Think of ambiguous sentence in more frightening way
Children inhibited temperamental style during childhood are likely to have anxiety disorders
later
Social phobia for inhibited people
The causes of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
Disorder results from operant conditioning
www.notesolution.com
Anxiety to specific events
Shaking hand with someone with a cold, go wash hand, later wash hands more often
OCD is in part genetic
Caudate nucleus is dysfunctional in people with OCD, smaller with structural abnormality
Basal ganglia disease manifest symptoms
OCD triggered by environmental factors
Streptococcal infection can cause symptoms of OCD in young children
Prefrontal cortex becomes overactive in attempt to compensate and reduce anxiety
The link between panic disorder and agoraphobia
Agoraphobia avoid going into open spaces or places where there might be crowds
Fear of unable to escpae
Symptoms of sympathetic nervous system arousal that occur during panic attack often lead
people to believe they are having a heart attack
Agoraphobia a the result of untreated panic attack
Medication to reduce panic attack, not effect on agoraphobia
Are mood disorders extreme manifestations of normal moods?
There are different types of mood disorders
Mood disorders reflect extreme emotions
2 categories:
Depressive disorders
Major depression: depressed mood or loss of interest in pleasurable activity
Appetite and weight change, sleep disturbance
90% recover from depression, 50% will experience it again
Dysthymia
Mild to moderate severity
Last from 2-20 more years (chronic depression)
Psych scientist consider it to be personality disorder rather than mood disorder
Bipolar disorder
Normal fluctuation of sadness to exuberance seem minuscule in comparison to
extremes experience by those with bipolar disorder
Manic depression
Period of major depression and period of mania
Hypomanic episodes characterized by heightened creativity and productivity and
can be extremely pleasurable and rewarding
Bipolar I (major depression and mania) and bipolar II(major depression,
hypomania)
Cyclothymia: individuals experience hypomania and mild depression
Bipolar less common than depression
Mood disorders have cognitive, situational, and biological components
Depression is caused by a combination of factors
Damage to left prefrontal cortex leads to depression but not right prefrontal cortex
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Mental disorders have many causes Table 13.1 Psychological factors Family systems model Behaviour of an individual must be considered iwhtin a social context, family Problems with individual are due to family problems Social cultural model Psychopathology as result of interaction between individuals and cultures Eg. Schizophrenia most common in low classes Anorexia nervosa more common in upper clsses Cognitive behavioural factors Cognitive havioural approach is that abnormal behaviour is learned Fears are learned rather than innate strict behaviourism argue mental disorders are result of classical and operant conditioning thoughts can be considered as behaviour, they can become distorted and produce maladaptive behaviours and emotions thought processes are believed to be available to the conscious mind biological factors how physiological factors like genetics contribute to mental illness]] maternal illness because fetus is vulnerable brain imaging reveal brain regions of mental illness Integrating the factors involved in mental disorders mental disorder=interaction among multiple factors diathesis-stress model proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event this predisposition can be biological or environmental family history suggests vulnerability rather than destiny The legal system has its own definition of psychopathology issue of personal responsibility for actions notion of insanity is legal not psychological Hinckley and insanity defense Later law changed that defendant has to prove theyre insane at the time rather that the opposite having to prove that they were sane Can anxiety be the root of seemingly different disorders? Excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger Normal to be anxious in stressful situations, abnormal to feel anxious without cause There are different types of anxiety disorders Arousal of nervous sytem www.notesolution.com
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