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Ch14_

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 14 Treating disorders of mind and body
agoraphobia
Relaxation
modify maladaptive thought patterns
construct hierarchy of increasing stressful situations as therapy for patient to try
psychotherapy, biological therapy, (psychopharmacology)
How is mental illnesses treated
Psychotherapy is based on psychological principles
mix of techniques from 400 of them used
psychodynamic therapy focuses on insight
freud developed psychoanalysis
aly on couch to reduce inhibition and allow freer access to unconscious thoughts
unconscious feelings exposed
technique called free association and dream analysis
hope to increase patients awareness of unconscious thoughts
psychodynamic approaches: talking therapy
expensive and time consuming treatment
new approach of offering smaller number of sessions and focusing on current relationships
humanistic therapies focus on the whole person
client centered therapy: by carl rogers, encourages people to fulfill their individual
potentials for personal growth through greater self understanding
therapists strive to be empathetic
reflective listening: repeat back concerns
motivational interviewing to treat eating disorders
Behavioural therapy focuses on observable behaviour
behaviour modification based on operant conditioning
social skills training- modeling:
1. modeling
2. imitate and apply
Interpersonal therapy
Focus on relationships patient attempt to avoid
Exposure: therapy for phobia
Systematic desensitization: exposure technique that pairs the anxiety producing stimulus
with relaxation techniques
Cognitive behaivoural therapy focuses on faulty cognitions
Cognitive therapy: based on idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and
emotions
Cognitive restructuring: help patient recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace
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them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT): incorporate both
cognitive and behaviour therapy
Group therapies
Less expansive
Discussion
Specific goals designed
Effective for disorders such as bulimia and obsessive compulsive disorder
Social support group members provide each other is beneficial
Family therapy focuss on the family context
Personal behaviour can have profound effecdts on family dynamics
Family members can have impact on client outcome
Negative expressed emotions include making critical comments about patient
Family levels of negative emotion to patients correspond to relapse rate for patients with
schizo (pg 571 diagram)
Biological therapies are necessary for some disorders
Drugs
Electrical stimulation of brain regions
Surgical interventions
Psychotropic medication: act on brain to affect mental processes
Anti-anxiety drugs (tranquilizers) to treat anxiety like benzodiazepine increase GABA
activity which is an inhibitory neruroransmitter
Drugs reduce anxiey and promote relaxation but induce drowsiness as well
Antidepressants: MAO inhibitors result in more serotinoin available because MAO converts
serotonin into another chemical form, raise epinephrine and dopamine level
Tricyclic antidepressantsinhibit reuptake of number of different neurotransmitters
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) act on other neurotransmitter to lesser extent
Prozac is one SSRI used, but have side effects like sexual dysfunction
Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) treat schizo and others
Reduce delusions and hallucinations
Antipsychotic bind to dopamine receptors without activating them blocking effects of
dompamine
Side effect like involuntary twitching of muscle
Clozpine a drug proven to not only act on serotonin but also nor, acetylcholine, histamine
Anticonvulsants prevent seizuires and to regulate moods in bipolar disorder
Common factors enhance treatment
Evaluating effectiveness of therapy
Receiving both drugs and psychotherapy produced the best effect from survey
75 % of neurotic patients improved whether or not they were in therapy
Helped them gain insight in to problem seen as most important help
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Doesnt matter the type of therapy, if gotten therapy, it had a positive effect
A caring therapist
Relationship between patient and therapist
Confessional therapy is good
What are the most effective treatments
Treaments should be tailored specifically to the symptom of the client
Techniques used in treatment developed by psychological scientist
No overall grand theory guides treamtne, but based on evidence of its effectiveness
Treatments that focus on behaviour and cognition are superior for anxiety disorders
Specific phobias
Behavioural techniques: systematic desensitization therapy, client makes a fear hierarchy (list
of situations they fear)
Next is relaxation training
Exposure therapy
Success shown by dereace in frontal region acitivy
Tranquilizers, SSRI usedful for social phobia
Virtual environment therapy (computer generated images to simulate feared environemtns)
done before exposure to actual environment
Panic disorder
Imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, prevents panic attacks but does nothing to reduce
anticipatory anxiety patient have when they fear they might have a panic attack
Cognitive therapy to trea t his
1. asked to identify fears they have
2. asked to assign percentage to these fears, and they would say 085% would likely to faint
but in fact Its 0, because panic attack dont lead to fainting
Therapy want to break connection between trigger symptoms and resulting panic
Cognitive behavioural therapy appears to be as effective as medication
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Combination of recurrent intrusive thoughts (obsession) and behaviours that client feels
compelled to perform over and over (compulsion)
Related to tourettes syndrome (motor and vocal lics)
Biological antianxiety drugs are ineffective for OCD
SSRI really effect in reducing obsessional component
Clomipramine
Combine with dopamine receptor blocker
Cognitive behavioural therapy effective for OCD
Exposure and response prevention
Goal is to break the conditioned link between particular stimuli and compulsive
behaviour
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Description
Chapter 14 Treating disorders of mind and body agoraphobia Relaxation modify maladaptive thought patterns construct hierarchy of increasing stressful situations as therapy for patient to try psychotherapy, biological therapy, (psychopharmacology) How is mental illnesses treated Psychotherapy is based on psychological principles mix of techniques from 400 of them used psychodynamic therapy focuses on insight freud developed psychoanalysis aly on couch to reduce inhibition and allow freer access to unconscious thoughts unconscious feelings exposed technique calle associaandream analysis hope to increase patients awareness of unconscious thoughts psychodynamic approaches: talking therapy expensive and time consuming treatment new approach of offering smaller number of sessions and focusing on current relationships humanistic therapies focus on the whole person client centered therapy: by carl rogers, encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self understanding therapists strive to be empathetic reflective listening: repeat back concerns motivational interviewing to treat eating disorders Behavioural therapy focuses on observable behaviour behaviour modification based on operant conditioning social skills training- modeling: 1. modeling 2. imitate and apply Interpersonal therapy Focus on relationships patient attempt to avoid Exposure: therapy for phobia Systematic desensit: exposure technique that pairs the anxiety producing stimulus with relaxation techniques Cognitive behaivoural therapy focuses on faulty cognitions Cognitive therapy: based on idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions Cognitive restructuring: help patient recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace www.notesolution.com
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