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[PSY201H1] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 43 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY201H1
Professor
Christine Burton
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
PSY201H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSY201 Textbook Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
Definitions of Statistics
Shortened version of statistical procedures
Used to summarize and evaluate research results in the behavioural sciences
Serve two general purposes
1. Used to organize and summarize the information so that the researcher can see
what happened in the research study and can communicate the results to others
2. Help the researcher to answer the questions that initiated the research by
determining exactly what general conclusions are justified based on the specific
results that were obtained
Statistics: refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing and
interpreting information
Statistical procedures help ensure that the information or observations are presented
and interpreted in an accurate and informative way
Provide researchers with a set of standardized techniques that are recognized and
understood throughout the scientific community
Populations and Samples
Research in the behavioural sciences typically begins with a general question about a
specific group of individuals
Population: the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study
Populations can vary in size, must be identified by the researcher, and need not be of
humans (can include animals)
However, populations tend to be very large
Therefore, researchers typically select a smaller, more manageable group from the
population  known as a sample
Sample: set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the
population in a research study
Samples can also vary in size
Ex. A study examines a sample of 10 students in a graduate program
When a researcher finishes examining the sample, the goal is to generalize the results
back to the entire population
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Variables and Data
Variable: a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different
individuals
Ex. Height, weight, gender, personality  characteristics that differ from individual to
individual
Ex. Temperature, time of day, amount of sunlight  environmental conditions
Data (plural) are measurements or observations. A data set is a collection of measurements or
observations. A datum (singular) is a single measurement or observation and is commonly
called a score or raw score
Important to note that populations or samples can be referred to as scores, not just
individuals
Because research typically involves measuring each individual to obtain a score, every
sample of individuals produces a corresponding sample of scores
Parameters and Statistics
Parameter: is a value, usually a numerical value, that describes a population. A parameter is
usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the population
Statistic: is a value, usually a numerical value, that describes a sample. A statistic is usually
derived from measurements of the individuals in the sample
The research process begins with a question about a population parameter
However, the actual data come from a sample and are used to compute sample
statistics
Everyone population parameter has a corresponding sample statistic
Descriptive and Inferential Statistical Methods
Two categories of different procedures:
1. Descriptive statistics
2. Inferential statistics
Descriptive Statistics: are statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data
Take raw scores and organize or summarize them in a form that is more manageable
Often organized in a table or graph
Another technique is computing an average of the set of scores
Inferential Statistics: consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make
generalizations about the populations from which they were selected
Researchers use sample statistics as the basis for drawing conclusions about population
parameters
One problem with using samples, however, is that a sample provides only limited
information about the population
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