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PSY201H1 Final: PSYA01 Exam Review

Course Code
Ainsley Lawson
Study Guide

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Lecture 1, 2, 3, and 4
Chapter 1: Introducing Psychological Science
Psychology: The scientific study of behavior, thought, and experience. It is the study
of the human mind, the study of consciousness and unconsciousness, and human
Importance of Souls: Humans are controlled by a soul, meaning that they are
responsible for their actions. Souls are spiritual entities, which do not conform to
natural laws.
There are two kinds of views Animism and Magic.
Animism: Anything in the world is able to have a soul and desires.
Magic: Intelligence and soul is the same. The reason we think we have souls is
because we are all mystical and spiritual and we do not understand how we can do
Rene Descartes (1596-1650):
Cartesian Dualism – The idea that a machine is controlled by a soul.
Argued that animals have no souls and that humans are dualistic creatures. A part of
us is just like animals but we also have a soul that can control the machinery, and
that is the only difference between humans and animals.
During the inventions of pressure plates and hydraulics, Rene stepped on a pressure
plate as he was approaching the statue of Diana causing water to flow from on end
of the statue. Since there was another statue blocking the hydraulic, the force of the
water pushed the statue onto Rene’s path shocking him. He concluded that non-
living objects have souls too.
John Locke (1632:-1704):
Mind is machine – Argues that humans are fully machines unlike Rene’s dualistic
Le Table Rassa – We are not on a blank state that life makes us who we are.
Empiricism – Knowledge comes from experience.
James Mill (1773-1836):
Materialism – The notion that human beings are composed of physical matter.
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798): Learned science for fun. Argues that humans are partly
machines, we are ‘electrochemical’ meaning that if there is enough electrical
stimulation to the muscles it is enough to make it contract in order to produce
Johannes Muller (1801 – 1858): Discovered that human bodies are made up of
wires called “Neural Circuits” – Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: Human body in
machine terms.
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Pierre Florens (1774-1867): Ablation Studies – Was used to take the body of an
animal, perform tests and then use surgery to destroy certain parts of its brain.
Depending on what part of the brain was removed, something different would occur
each time.
Paul Broca (1824-1880): Localization of language. Understand language but
cannot produce words that make sense. Thus, the damaged parts of the brain were
names named Broacas Area.
Ernest Weber (1795-1878): Almost became the first psychologist in the world,
and studied physics of the internal world (Physics inside the human world).
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Wrote first psychology textbook ‘The Principles of
Physiological Psychology” Inspired by Webber but also wanted to study how the
human mind functioned and got people to talk about their inner experiences.
Darwin (1809 -1882): Survival of the fittest; structuralism: analyzing conscious
experience by breaking it down into basic elements and understanding how those
elements work together.
William James (1842-1910): Structuralism gave way to functionalism: Study of the
purpose and functions od behavior and conscious experience. Studies how the
human mind works. Interested in the function of mental processes.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Stated that individuals could have a psychological
illness that comes from the mind and not from the body.
There are two branches psychology: the scientific branch which is more in line
with basic science and focuses on understanding humans and the clinical branch
which is more in line with medicines and cures sickness.
The European Reaction:
Webber- How does the mind perceive the world
Gestalt Psychology: Emphasizes that psychologists need to focus on the whole of
perception and experience, rather than its parts. Gestalt means seeing something
that is not actually there. Example: The triangle surrounded by three quarters of a
The North American Reaction
The Cognitive Revolution: Movement in the 1950s that began with the cognitive
sciences. It was a combination of psychology, anthropology, and linguistics.
The Scientific Method: A way of learning about the world through collecting
observations, proposing explanations for the observations, developing theories to
explain them, and using the theories to make predictions.
Theories generate hypotheses
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Once tested, hypotheses are either confirmed or rejected.
Confirmed hypotheses lead to new and strengthen ones.
Rejected hypotheses are revised and tested again.
oHypothesis: A testable prediction about processes that can be
observed and measured.
Testable hypothesis is one that can be confirmed or rejected.
Scientific hypothesis MUST be testable.
Pseudoscience: Ideas that are presented as science but do not actually utilize basic
principles of scientific thinking or procedure.
Theory: An explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates into a
coherent whole.
Theories are not the same thing as opinion and beliefs.
All theories are not equally plausible.
A measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe it
to be true.
Biopsychosocial Model: A means of explaining behavior as a product of biological,
psychological and sociocultural factors.
Brain structures, chemicals, hormones, drug effects
Family, peers, situations
Thoughts, experiences, emotions, personality
Scientific Literacy: The ability to understand, analyze and apply scientific
Knowledge Gathering (What do we know?)
Scientific Explanation (How can science explain this?)
Critical Thinking (Can we critically evaluate the evidence) Exercising
curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of others, and
with our own assumptions and beliefs.
Application (Why is this relevant?)
Critical Thinking: Exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating claims of
others with our own assumptions and beliefs.
Skills for developing critical thinking
Be curious
Examine the nature and course of the evidence.
Examine assumptions and biases
Avoid overly emotional thinking
Tolerate ambiguity
Consider alternative viewpoints
Principle of Parsimony: The simplest of all competing explanations of phenomenon
should be the one we accept.
Lecture 5, 6, and 7
Chapter 2: Reading and Evaluating Scientific Research
5 Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research
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