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Study Guide

[PSY210H1] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (62 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY210H1
Professor
Emis Akbari
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
PSY210H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Introduction*2016-01-31*4:40*PM*
The*Three*Domains*
Biosocial*–*includes*biology,*neuroscience*and*medicine*
Cognitive*–*includes*psychology,*linguistics*and*education*
Psychosocial*–*includes*economics,*sociology*and*history*
*
Childhood*and*Adulthood*
Early*malnutrition*can*stunt*brain*growth*and*have*long-lasting*effects*far*
worse*than*those*of*later*malnutrition*
*
Difference*of*Deficit?*
Difference-equals-deficit*error*–*people*tend*to*observe*differences*and*then*
conclude*that*people*are*inferior*if*they*are*unlike*the*observer*
*
Culture,*Ethnicity*and*Race*
They*are*social*constructions*–*created*by*the*society*
Culture*–*system*of*shared*beliefs,*conventions,*norms,*behaviours,*expectations*
and*symbolic*representations*that*persists*over*time*and*prescribe*social*rules*
of*conduct*
o It*is*powerful*but*also*fluid*and*changing*over*time*
o Cultural*values*learned*it*childhood*persists*even*when*the*overall*
culture*has*shifted*
Ethnic*group*–*people*sharing*certain*attributed,*almost*always*including*
ancestral*heritage*and*usually*national*origin,*religion*and*language*
o Strengthened*when*other*members*of*the*same*group*is*nearby*and*
when*other*groups*consider*the*person*an*outsider*
o Physical*appearance*is*sometimes*a*marker*for*ethnicity*–*such*as*skin*
colour*
*
Socioeconomic*Status*
Affects*every*moment*of*development*–*affects*rates*of*sexual*activity*and*
contraception,*and*mortality*rates*
o E.g.*wealthy*people*live*about*6*years*longer*than*they*did*thirty*years*
ago*
o Poor*people*die*about*the*same*age*as*their*parents*
*
Finding*the*Balance*
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Developmental*conclusions*should*never*be*contextually*naked*–*variations*is*
background*and*circumstances*should*always*be*considered*
*
As*Time*Goes*On*
Human*development*could*face:*
o Discontinuity*–*changes*are*rapid*and*dramatic*
o Continuity*–*growth*is*gradual*and*stable*
Critical*periods*–*time*when*something*must*occur*for*normal*development*and*
the*only*time*when*normality*can*occur*
o Thalidomide*incident*
Sensitive*period*–*time*where*particular*development*occur*more*easily*but*not*
exclusively*
o Language*acquisition*–*ideally*acquired*during*ages*1*to*3*but*can*be*
developed*at*a*later*time*only*with*complications*such*as*impaired*
grammar*
o A*child*can*also*acquire*a*second*or*third*language*between*these*ages*
*
Ecological*Systems*
Urie*Bronfenbrenner*–*ecological-system*approach*in*understanding*humans*
o There*are*three*nested*levels*of*factors*that*surround*individuals:*
§ Microsystems*–*immediate*surroundings*such*as*family*and*peers*
and*that*each*microsystem*creates*an*impact*depending*on*timing*
ú E.g.*peers*impact*more*during*adolescence*
§ Exosystems*–*local*institutions*such*as*schools*and*church*
§ Macrosystems*–*larger*social*settings*such*as*cultural*values,*
economic*policies*and*political*processes*
o Mesosystem*–*the*connection*between*the*systems*
o Chronosystem*–*the*time*system;*the*historical*context*that*allows*
developmentalists*to*focus*specifically*on*the*influence*of*changing*
historical*circumstances*
o He*renamed*this*theory*as*bioecological*approach*to*highlight*the*role*of*
biology*that*can*affect*external*systems*
Cohort*–*all*persons*born*within*a*few*years*of*one*another*
o It*matters*more*when*an*adult*was*born*than*how*old*that*adult*is*
*
Plasticity*
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