PSY210H1 Study Guide - Imaginary Audience, Egocentrism, Problem Solving

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Published on 3 Feb 2013
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PSY210. Ch.6 Cognitive Development 10/4/2012 11:10:00 AM
Piagetian, Core Knowledge, & Vygotskian Perspectives
Overview:
o Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory
Sensorimotor stage
Preoperational stage
Concrete operational stage
Formal operational stage
Piaget and Education
Overall evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
o The Core Knowledge Perspective
o Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky and Education
Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory
Ch. 6
Cognition: refers to the inner processes and products of the mind that lead
to “knowing”.
It includes all mental activity attending, remembering,
symbolizing, categorizing, planning, reasoning, problem solving,
creating, and fantasizing.
Issues:
Course of cognition = one or many?
Individual differences
Mechanisms of cog development = genetic/environmental factors
combine to yield patterns of change
Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
Piaget viewed children as discovering/constructing virtually all
knowledge about their world through their own activity by
themselves.
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His theory is described as a constructivist approach to cognitive
development
Basic characteristics of Piaget‟s Stages
o 4 stages
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational,
formal operational
o 3 important characteristics:
Stages provide general theory of development (stages
change in an integrated fashion, following a similar
course)
Stages are invariant (occur in a fixed order, no stage is
skipped)
Stages are universal. (assumed to characterize children
everywhere)
Piaget: Ideas about cognitive change
o Specific psychological structures called schemes organized
ways of making sense of experience change with age
o Infant first acts on objects, and later on thinks before acting
This change = the next step of cognition from
sensorimotor to representational schemes (via
adaptation and organization)
o Mental representations: internal depictions of info that the
mind can manipulate
Placing objects into concept categories to sort them into
schemas
Adaptation: building schemes through direct interaction
with the environment.
Via assimilation (using current schemes to
interpret the external world) and accommodation
(creating new schemes/adjusting old ones)
Cognitive equilibrium = When children aren‟t
changing much anymore, they assimilate more
than they accommodate.
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Equilibration = When children move back
and forth between equilibrium and
disequilibrium. (When modifying schemes
and returning to assimilation before moving
back to accommodation again.)
Organization: New schemes are rearranged and linked
with other schemes, to create a strongly interconnected
cognitive system.
(1) Sensorimotor stage: 0-2 years = 6 steps
Children think with senses
Circular reaction: baby stumbles onto new experience caused by
their own motor activity. Infant tries to repeat the event again and
again (circular). First focus is on own body, then manipulation of
objects.
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