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PSY220H1 Study Guide - Escherichia Coli, Social Proof, Deindividuation

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Jason Plaks

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Andrew (youngjik) Lee
Group Influence
Social Facilitation
-Bicycle racing + winding string experiment. Found that presence of others
caused enhanced performance
-Zajonc found that in presence of others, performance is enhanced for easy tasks while
performance is hindered for difficult tasks
-Others! presense = arousal = strengthened dominant response = enhanced
easy behavior/ impaired difficult behavior
-Evaluation apprehension: concern for how others are evaluating us
-Cottrell found that presence of others that are blind folded in a perception experiment
did not boost well-practiced responses
-Enhancement of dominant responses is strongest when people think they are
being evaluated
-When distracted there is a conflict between paying attention to assigned task and
paying attention to distraction. This overload in the cognitive system results in arousal
Social Loafing
-RIngelmann found that collective effort of teams was half the sum of individual efforts
-Ingham conducted experiment where participants were blindfolded and led to believe
that others were pulling with them. Individuals pulled 18% harder when they believed
they were alone.
-Latane conducted noise experiment with people wearing headphones (cannot hear
others). 1/3 less noise produced in group than individually
-Sweeny found that in a group condition, people were more tempted to free-ride on
group effort
-Presence of others! + evaluation of individual efforts (evaluation apprehension) =
arousal = social facilitation
-Presence of others! + individual efforts pooled (no evaluation apprehension) =
relaxation = relaxation
-People in groups loaf less when task is challenging, appealing, or involving
-Also if fellow group members are friends
-Groups cause deindividuation: loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension
-Anonymity reinforces loss of accountability for one!s actions
-Zimbardo conducted experiment where women were dressed to reinforce anonymity,
they administered shocks twice as long as women who were visible and wearing name
-Diener conducted experiment involving being in a group + being anonymous
(Halloween). Children in groups were more likely to take more candy
-Self-awareness opposes deindividuation
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