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PSY220H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Drive Theory, Availability Heuristic, Group Polarization


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Heather V.Fritzley
Study Guide
Final

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PSY220 – FINAL EXAM REVIEW
***note – these are to be used as a review and as a guideline. Material from the text/notes that are not
covered in these questions is still fair game for the final. Also, although particular studies are not
covered greatly in these review questions, if they were discussed in class, you should definitely be
familiar with them***
Chapter 1
1. What is social psychology and what are the four things that social psychology emphasizes?
2. What is the planning fallacy? Provide an example of the planning fallacy and explain why we are
subject to this kind of error
3. You’re at a party with a friend who is a Biology major and he tells you that Social Psychology is NOT a
science. Explain, using the values discussed in class and in the text, exactly what points you’d use in
your argument that it IS indeed a science
4. Discuss the relationship between cognition and behavior; social neuroscience; and the role of implicit
processes in social psychology.
5. What is a theory? A hypothesis? Dependent variable? Independent variable? If given an example of an
experiment, you should be able to identify both the dependent and independent variable in that
experiment
6. Discuss the various research methods in social psychology. Which method do social psychologists rely
on the most?
Chapter 2
7. What are schemas? When are the effects of schemas on social cognition stronger?
8. What is belief perseverance?
9. What are self-fulfilling prophecies? Discuss briefly the study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson
(1968) that supported this idea of self-fulfilling prophecies
10. What are heuristics? Name the three heuristics discussed in the text, provide a definition and give an
example of each
11. How is the media related to the availability heuristic?
12. What is priming? How does it work?
13. What is the difference between automatic and controlled processing? What has recent research in the
area of cognitive neuroscience shown with respect to these two processes?
14. What is negativity bias? What is the optimistic bias? How do overconfidence and the planning fallacy
relate to the optimistic bias?
15. What is counterfactual thinking? Give an example of such thinking
16. What is thought suppression? What are the two processes involved in thought suppression? Are people
able to suppress their thoughts about pain? Discuss the research study related to pain and thought
suppression discussed in the text.
17. What is illusory correlation and the illusion of control? Give an example of each.
18. Compare and contrast mood-dependent memory with mood congruence effects
Chapter 3
19. Name and discuss briefly the FOUR basic channels of non-verbal communication
20. Discuss cultural differences when it comes to the recognition of facial expressions
21. Are we good at lie detection? What about professionals, such as FBI agents? What has research shown
with respect to our lie detection abilities and professionals’ abilities? What cues have been found to be
reliable indicators of lie telling? Can people be trained to be effective lie detectors?
22. Discuss gender and non-verbal communication

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23. What is the Correspondent Inference Theory? When are we most likely to conclude that others’ behavior
reflects who they really are as a person? (three things)
24. Discuss Kelley’s theory of causal attributions. Provide an example.
25. What is attribution? What are the two types of attributions we make? Imagine that someone cuts you off
in traffic and you want to figure out why this particular person acted in this manner. What types of
information will you use to figure out why they acted in this manner?
26. What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? Why do many people use this ‘term’ any longer? What do
they call it instead? Provide an illustration of the FAE by discussing the study conducted by Napolitan
and Goethals (1979) that had participants greeted by a nice or mean grad student.
27. What is the actor-observer effect? Provide an example.
28. Is the FAE universal (across all cultures)? Explain
29. Discuss Asch’s work on central and peripheral traits
30. What are implicit personality theories? Are they affected by culture? Give an example to support your
answer regarding culture
31. When forming an impression of someone, do we normally ‘add’ up their traits or ‘average’ their traits?
Explain
32. Discuss the tactics of impression management and the role of cognitive load in impression management.
Chapter 4
33. What are attitudes? When do they especially influence behaviour?
34. Discuss the ABC model when it comes to attitudes
35. What is self-perception theory? What part of the ABC model does it apply to?
36. Are attitudes solely learned? Discuss.
37. What are the three learning processes that are important to the development of attitudes? Discuss each
briefly
38. Discuss cultural influences on attitude formation
39. Name and discuss briefly the 5 functions of attitudes
40. Discuss LaPiere’s (1934) study - how does it relate to the “attitude-behaviour link”?
41. What are the two components that ‘strength’ of attitudes includes?
42. Discuss the theory of planned behaviour and use an example to illustrate the theory. How is it different
from the theory of reasoned action?
43. Discuss the 4 factors involved in persuasion
44. Discuss the elaboration likelihood model – make sure you define the two routes to persuasion while
doing so
45. What are the four concepts discussed when I was talking about resisting persuasion. (hint – one started
with R, one started with F, one started with S, and one started with I). Discuss each of these briefly
46. What is cognitive dissonance? What are the three ways you can reduce it directly? What is the one way
to reduce it indirectly (discussed in class)?
47. Is cognitive dissonance universal? Use the study dealing with the spreading of alternatives to answer this
question (Heine & Lehman, 1997)
48. Discuss Festinger and Carlsmith’s original cognitive dissonance experiment (hint - $1 vs $20). Make
sure you make mention of the insufficient justification effect
49. Can dissonance be a beneficial tool for changing behaviour? Discuss.
Chapter 5
50. Discuss the personal-social identity continuum and the idea of self-concept.
51. Define self-complexity, identity interference, independent self-concept and interdependent self-concept.
52. Discuss culture and its relation to self-concept
53. What is the looking glass self?
54. What are self-schemas? How do they relate to the self-reference effect?
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55. What is self-awareness theory? How can we make people more self-aware? Give an example of a
practical application of this theory (HINT – think about clothing stores). What are the different types of
self-awareness?
56. What is social comparison theory? What are downward and upward social comparisons? Discuss the
study conducted by Lockwood and Kunda (1997) that involved first year and fourth year accounting
students being exposed to a “star” accounting student and relate this to social comparison theory and
upward and downward comparisons
57. Compare and contrast the self-evaluation maintenance model and social identity theory.
58. Compare and contrast personal identity with social identity
59. What is self-efficacy? Discuss the findings of the study investigating self-efficacy in science students
conducted at Laval University that investigated self-efficacy beliefs in students admitted to a science-
related field in college.
60. What is learned helplessness and how can it be applied to real-life situations?
61. What is the self-serving bias? Give two ways that we self-serve (that were discussed in class)
62. Compare and contrast the false consensus effect with the false uniqueness effect
63. What is self-esteem? Discuss self-esteem when it comes to culture (e.g., is self-esteem universal?). Be
sure to define different types of self-esteem in this answer.
64. Define self-presentation, ingratiation and self-monitoring.
65. What is self-handicapping? Provide an example
Chapter 6
66. What are stereotypes? What is prejudice? What is discrimination?
67. Discuss how the ABC model relates to stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination
68. What are stereotypes and how do they relate to schemas?
69. What do we do when faced with stereotype-inconsistent information if we don’t change our stereotype?
70. What is illusory correlation and how does it relate to stereotyping?
71. What is outgroup homogeneity? Does it ALWAYS apply? Why/why not? Discuss fully
72. Do stereotypes ever change? Discuss.
73. Discuss gender stereotyping. Don’t forget to include a mention of the women are wonderful effect
74. What is tokenism? Give an example
75. Discuss minimal groups, implicit associations, and incidental feelings when it comes to prejudice.
76. Discuss threats to self-esteem, realistic conflict theory, and social categorization when it comes to the
origins of prejudice
77. Discuss Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment and how it relates to realistic conflict theory (make sure to
define important terms)
78. What is the ultimate attribution error?
79. What is a scapegoat? So what is the scapegoating theory of prejudice? Provide an example
80. Discuss the bogus pipeline, priming, and the bona fide pipeline with respect to prejudice.
81. What are the emotional, behavioural, and cognitive consequences of being a target of prejudice? Discuss
briefly
82. Discuss the various ways to reduce prejudice
Chapter 7
83. What is interpersonal attraction?
84. Is facial processing important? Discuss how we know this
85. Discuss the thematic apperception test and the need for affiliation
86. Compare and contrast the direct effect of emotions on attraction and the associated effect of emotions on
attraction
87. Discuss laughter and liking
88. Discuss proximity and attraction. Be sure to also include a discussion of the propinquity effect and
repeated exposure (mere exposure effect)
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