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PSY220H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Fear, Norm (Social), Confabulation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune
Study Guide
Final

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PSY220 Exam Review
Lecture 1: Introduction
Social Influence:
oThe influences that people have on our beliefs, feelings, and
behaviours is pervasive
People construct their own reality:
oShaped by cognitive processes (way our minds work) and social
processes (influence from others)
Three Motivational Principles:
oPeople strive for mastery
oPeople seek connectedness
oPeople value me and mine
Three processing principles:
oConservatism:
Established views are slow to change
oAccessibility:
Readily available info has the largest impact on our thoughts,
feelings, and behaviours
oSuperficiality vs depth:
People usually process info with little thought or effort
(superficial), but are motivated at times to think more deeply
about info
Textbook readings chapter 1:
Zimbardo prison experiment:
oStudents played the roles of prisoners and guards by the end of the
experiment, the students couldn’t distinguish role play from reality,
and really believed the roles they took on. (ie. the boys that were
guards really became cruel, and the boys that became prisoners
became submissive robots)
Lecture 2: Research Ethics and Conformity:
Archival Research:
oCorrelational (NOT causation)
oUse info someone else has gathered (eg. Look at historically reported
temperatures)
How many times does the pitcher hit the batter with the ball on
a cold vs hot day?
Directionality problems: which variable caused change in the
other?
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Third Variable: something that caused change in both variables
Random Assignment:
o is the most important advantage of an experiment; NOT control
(although control is important)
Social Norms:
oGenerally accepted ways of thinking/behaving in a group
o“the right way”
oDescriptive Norms: what people actually do
oInjunctive Norms: what people should do
These two norms often overlap
oPeople conform to norms for 2 reasons:
Informational Influence: believe that a group’s norm reflects
reality
Normative Influence: we adopt group consensus if we want
to feel accepted by that group
oSocial Norm Formation:
Interaction among group members leads to converged of
thoughts of individuals
Ex. Sherif:
Autokinetic Effect:
oIn a dark room, a stationary point of light will
appear to move. Participants had to estimate
how far the dot had moved.
oIndividually: estimates drastically varied
between participants
o3 Days Later (in a Group): people modified their
answers and they converged
o1 year later: participants asked to do the task
again individually; their responses mimicked the
answers they provided in the group a year ago
staying power
task was very ambiguous, and no one was confident in
their judgment; we believe the group has more
knowledge than we do. Their opinions increase our
chances of being right!
oUnanimity:
Likelihood that the person will conform to that of the majority
A fellow dissenter (someone else who also doesn’t agree with
the norm) will severely reduce the person’s conformity
towards the group majority
Conformity:
oA person’s thoughts, feelings or behaviour tend towards a social norm
oPrivate conformity:
People willingly accept group norms as their own beliefs
oPublic conformity:
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Displayed behaviour is consistent with social norms, but not
accepted by the person people pretend to go along with
group norm to avoid rejection
oIntellective Tasks:
Have one definitive answer
Need for mastery/correctness is the most important to people
in this task
Almost anyone can serve as an appropriate reference group
Eg. In the autokinetic effect task, everyone is an
appropriate reference as long as they have good
eyesight; we would expect to agree with them
oJudgmental Tasks:
No single correct solution involve decisions about social and
personal issues
Need for connectedness is more important than mastery
Only certain people are appropriate referencesie. people who
share our values, beliefs
oFalse confessions:
Someone confesses to something they didn’t do
Voluntary False Confessions:
Self-incriminating no external pressure from police
Coerced-compliance False Confessions:
Person confesses in order to avoid punishment, or
obtain a reward. It is merely public compliance by people
who know they’re innocent
Coerced-internalized False Confessions:
Person is exposed to misleading interrogation tactics,
and confess because they truly now believe they
committed the crime
Process of internalization:
1) suspect is vulnerable to manipulation dispositionally
and situationally
2)police confront subject with objective evidence that
may or may not have been fabricated
3) suspect tries to remember what happened (they
presume they must have blacked out or repressed the
memory)
4) suspect makes tentative admission of guilt
5) suspect provides fully detailed confession (based on
what was overheard, crime scene photos etc.)
Self Perception Theory:
Subjects made a false confession under conditions
associated with telling the truth (eg. In a police station),
and believed their own lies.
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