Study Guide for Maslow and Rogers
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1.Explain why Maslow has been called the father of humanistic psychology.
a.Criticized psychoanalysis as negative and pessimistic
b.Behaviour and learning theories as too mechanic
2.Distinguish btw motivation, metamotivation, D-needs, and B-needs, and indicate the
importance of these distinctions.
a.Define motivation = the reduction of tension by satisfying deficit states
i.D-needs (deficiency needs) = comes out of organism’s requirements for
physiological survival/safety and motivates the individual into
activities that reduce these drives
1.Examples = need for food, need to eat food
a.Physiological needs take precedence over safety
b.Define metamotivation = growth tendencies
i.B- needs (being needs) = push forward individual to enhance life by
c.Motivation and D-needs need to be satisfied before metamotivation and B-
needs can be satisfied.
3.Describe the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
a.Better described in a bar graph
b.Physiological needs = strongest
i.Example = need for food, sleep, oxygen, etc.
c.Safety needs = requirements for an orderly, stable environment
d.Belonging and Love needs = seek affectionate and intimate relationships with
others and to feel a part of various groups
e.Self-esteem needs = two kinds
i.Need for self-respect
ii.Need for respect from others
f. Self-actualization – need to fulfill one’s highest potential
i.Unique to every person
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