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[PSY230H1] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (54 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Christine Burton
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
PSY230H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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10/2/2016 Ch1: What is Personality?
file:///Users/user/Desktop/230/Ch1:%20What%20is%20Personality_.html 1/3
Personality psychology = scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely
themselves
personality has 8 key aspects
1. individual is affected by unconscious aspects -forces that aren’t in moment-to-moment
awareness
2. individual is affected by ego forces - provide a sense of identity
3. a person is a biological being- unique genetic, physical, physiological, temperamental
nature
4. people are conditioned&shaped by experiences and surrounding environments
5. people have a cognitive dimension- actively interpreting the world around them
6. individual is a collection of specific traits, skills & dispositions
7. people have a spiritual dimension- prompts them to ponder the meaning of their existence
seek happiness and self-fulfinllment
8. one’s nature is an ongoing interactionb/t the person and the particular environment
Modern personality psychologists are scientific such that they attempt to use methods of scientific
inference(using systematically gathered evidence)
correlation coefficient= mathematical index to the degree of agreement/association b/t 2 measures
ex: negative correlation b/t one’s degree of introversion and # of fb friends
tells us about associations, not casual relationships
many theories arise from observations & deep introspection of insightful thinkers
ex: Freud analyzed his own dreams which revealed to him conflicts and urges hidden within
from assumptions about sexual urges, he elaborated his theory to account for problems
he saw in his medical practice
deductive approach- conclusions follow logically from the premises
top-down process of reasoning from generalizations to instances
some theories arise from systematic empirical research
inductive approach- concepts developed based on what collected observations reveal
works from data up to theory
bottom-down process
some theories arise from analogies and concepts borrowed form related disciplines
e.g. neuroscience, anthropology
in practice, almost all personality theories involve some elements of induction, deduction &
analogy
8 Perspectives into which personality theories are classified
1. Psychoanalytic
attention to unconscious influences; importance of sexual drives even in nonsexual spheres
2. Neoanalytic/ego
emphasis on the self as it struggles to cope with emotions and drives on the inside and the
demands of others on the outside
3. Biological
focus on tendencies & limits imposed by biological inheritance; easily combined with most
other approaches
one’s temperament(characteristic emotional & motivational nature) is strongly influenced
by multiple biological factors
4. Behaviourist
emphasis on a more scientific analysis of the learning experiences that shape personality
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10/2/2016 Ch1: What is Personality?
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5. Cognitive
emphasis on active nature of human thought; uses modern knowledge from cog psychology
focus on people’s consistencies in perceiving and interpreting the world around them
6. Trait
focus on good individual assessment techniques
mid-20thC Gordon Allport
7. Humanistic/existential
appreciation of the spiritual nature ofperson; emphasizes struggles for self-fulfilment and
dignity
8. Interactionist
understanding that we are diff selves in diff situations
form the most modern personality theories in the field
A # of scientific & philosophical forces that converged early in 20th C made possible the birth of
personality psych
some roots of personality psych can be traced to the theatre
Theophrastus is 1 of the earliest known creators of character sketches (brief descriptions of a
type of person that can be recognized across t and place)
20thC: idea of a relative self- there’s no underlying self beneath an outward-facing mask,
but rather the true self is comprised merely of masks
challenged the idea that there’s any personality to be discovered
other aspects of personality psych can be traced to religious ideas
conceptions of people’s nature being spiritual often discourage a scientific analysis of
personality
self-awareness and self-fulfilment (preach in eastern religions) play an important role in
certain aspects of modern personality theory (e.g. humanistic and existential theories)
most direct influences on modern personality psych - developments in biological sciences during
19th C
theory of evolution- freed thinking from assumptions of divine control
Darwinian doctrine - other animals (esp. primates) should have at least some elements of
personality
Animal Personality Study: basic dimensions of extroversion, neuroticism &
agreeableness show the strongest cross-species generality
Army tests during wartime contributed to the development of modern personality tests
Terman & Yerkes - 1st mass use of mental tests (primarily intelligence testing)
Modern personality theory began to take formal shape in 1930s -heavily influenced by work of:
Gordon Allport
defined personality as “dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his enviro"
building on work of William James, rejected idea of trying to break down personality
into basic components and instead looked for underlying organization of each person’s
uniqueness
Kurt Lewin
came out of the Gestalt tradition - emphasized the integrative and active nature of
perception and thought
~Allport, dynamic approach - looked for systems that underlie observable behaviour
emphasized that the forces affecting a person change from time to time and is
situational
Henry Murray
attempted to integrate clinical issues with theory and assessment issues
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