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PSY230H1 Study Guide - Face Validity, Fatalism, Penis Envy


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Maja Djikic

Page:
of 8
PSY230: Engler text: Goals by Chapter
(The quotes are from the text.)
Chapter 2 (Freud):
1. Freud used the talking method developed by Joseph Breuer. As a result of
this practice, he developed his own methods of free association and other
techniques. At first, they worked together but separated due to Breuer’s
rejection of “Freud’s emphasis on the role of sexuality in neurosis.”
Foreshadowing? Regarding unconscious processes, Freud found that
encouraging his patients to remember traumatic events was a long process,
so he concluded that some sort of unconscious inner resistance prevented
that recall. Unconscious means “unable to be verbalized.”
2. Traumatic events evoked strong emotions that often cannot be expressed in
a normal way “because of the circumstances surrounding the event.” The
repressed emotions are expressed through neurotic events such as ________.
He referred to repressed ideas or thoughts (arising through traumatic
events) as wishes that went against the person’s ego-ideal, causing pain due
to that incompatibility.
3. To free associate: “verbalize whatever comes to mind, no matter how
insignificant, trivial or even unpleasant the idea, thought or picture may
seem.” It is based on the premise that “no idea is arbitrary [or] insignificant.”
4. Slips and dreams: like the thoughts that come from free association, slips are
also not without meaning. The person who slips is subconsciously
expressing a personal motive through the slip, though the slip may also be
caused by physical tiredness. To analyze a slip, one would use free
association to analyze the chain of associations made by the patient between
thoughts related to the event; note that the premise of free association must
be observed. Regarding dreams, Freud saw them as the expression of
unsatisfied wishes, those “unacceptable to the self-concept”, or ego-ideal. The
wishes and motives are contained in the “latent dream”, as opposed to the
“manifest dream,” which is the dream as recalled. To analyze the dream
(“dream work”), Freud used symbols, which may be personal or shared
(foreshadowing Jung?) to interpret the results of free association.
5. “According to Freud, the nature of our repressed wishes and desires is
erotic.” What does he mean by that and what is his definition of sexuality? He
saw a sexual desire like homeostasis (my interpretation): a desire to seek
balance; basically, to scratch an itch. Over time, he emphasized the emotional
and psychic component of this drive as libido. To him. “drive” is “a
psychological or mental representation of an inner bodily source of
excitement.” In contrast to Descartes, Freud saw mind and body as a unity:
drive contains the energy of both mind and body. A drive has source,
impetus, aim and object. Eros represents life-affirming drives, but Thanatos
represents death-affirming drives … basically. Note the polarity. He redefined
sexuality by removing the influence of genitals and reproductive activity and
enlarged it to “include activities such as thumb sucking and sublimation, that
were not previously thought to be sexual.” (It seems to me that those who
rejected Freud’s emphasis on sexuality did not seem to understand his use of
the word.)
6. Childhood:
7. Psychosexual stages:
a. Oral
b. Anal
c. Phallic (Oedipus Complex shows up here)
d. Latency
e. Genital
8. Id/ego/superego: id operates according to pleasure principle and drives us
using primary processes. Superego strives for perfection, is conscience and
ego-ideal. Ego moderates between the two, following the reality principle,
using secondary processes.
9. In maladjusted personalities: the id and/or superego gains control over the
moderating ego.
10. Id/Ego/Superego in conscious/unconscious processes: “No easy correlation”.
The three may or may not have un/conscious components.
11. Three forms of anxiety:
a. Reality
b. Neurotic
c. Moral
12. Defense mechanisms:
a. Repression (the umbrella terms for the rest of them)
b. Denial (“No, I’m fine. What abuse?”)
c. Projection (
d. Reaction formation (“I love it when he hits me.”)
e. Regression (eating Haagen-Dazs)
f. Rationalization (“Why tell the family I misdiagnosed? The patient was
going to die anyway.”)
g. Identification (This is modeling behavior on someone we like, who
treats us well, who treats us badly. Same-sex or not.)
h. Displacement (After a bad day, you come home and kick the dog.)
i. Sublimation (turning a bad childhood into a novel)
13. Psychoanalysis: the therapy privileges transference, where the patient is
allowed to regress and experience past traumas by feeling the same way
toward the therapist as he/she did toward significant persons in the past.
Once re-experienced in a therapeutic environment, the feelings can be
examined and reworked to produce a more satisfactory resolution for the
patient.
14. Efforts to test Freudian concepts: Much of the processes involved are
internal. “It is difficult to translate many of his concepts into operational
procedures that allow for an unequivocal test. “ Results are mixed. Note that
_______________ preferred to study processes that can be observed in human
interactions.
15. Philosophy/science/art: mostly philosophy, probably because many of its
precepts cannot be determined empirically?
Chapter 3 (Jung):
1. How he used “psyche:” it refers to all psychological processes: conscious and
subconscious.
2. How is his concept of libido different? This is what I don’t get. Jung thought
of libido as a general psychic energy driving a person forward. But if Freud
redefined sexuality as being more general, aren’t they talking about the same
thing? Okay. Freud placed it more in the id, which has a more physical
component, and those desires may conflict with the superego. So we may
have three definitions for libido:
a. Narrowly defined as the desire to have sex
b. More broadly defined as a set of physical desires (Freud)
c. Even more broadly defined as a set of motivations, “undifferentiated
energy that moves the person forward (Jung).
3. Jung ego vs, Freud ego: Freud thought that the ego moderated between id
and superego and executed the actions of the personality. Jung thought
that ego is one’s conscious perception of self.
4. Attitudes and functions (one attitude, one function is dominant):
a. Introversion (attitude)
b. Extroversion (attitude)
c. Thinking
d. Sensing
e. intuition