Study Guides (256,443)
CA (124,652)
UTSG (8,518)
PSY (734)
PSY230H1 (27)
Midterm

Second Midterm Notes

12 Pages
211 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Behaviourism
Reaction from idea of unconsciousness; anything not observable, does not exist
Assumptions:
oKnowledge that does not come from direct public observation is invalid
oIntrospection is invalid because no one can verify someones introspection
oPersonality is a sum total of ones environment (rewards and punishments contained in
physical and social world)
Environment induces behaviour which represents learning (any change of behaviour as a
function of ones experience with environment) it is the only and ultimate cause of behaviour
Philosophical roots:
oEmpiricism: everything we know comes from our experience; Locke environment
imprints on you
oAssociationism: claim that two things, or two ideas, or thing and an idea, become mentally
associated together if they are repeatedly experienced as close together in time
The whole is exactly the sum of its parts
oGestalt psychology: the whole is different from the sum of its parts
Our perceptions of the world are not built merely from the pieces we perceive, the mind
imposes on complicated stimuli a general form that has meaning different from its
parts
oReductionism: conceptualism of knowledge as including simple associations between small
facts
Understanding a large phenomenon by breaking it down into small constituent parts
Personality consists of persons inventory of learned associations, or even physiological
mechanisms, that can be considered separately
oHedonism:
People learn in order to seek pleasure and avoid pain reason why rewards and
punishments shape behaviour
Epicurus: purpose of life to be free of pain and to pursue aesthetic enjoyment and
peace of mind
Led to utilitarianism: the best society is the arrangement that crease the most
happiness for the largest number of people
oProblem?
The majority could strip minoritys rights and happiness
Sadness is a signalling mechanism and without it, instead of allowing
info, it twists your emotional system
Pavlov: natural or spontaneous responses cold be made conditional upon the appearance of an
unnatural stimulus
oClassical conditioning:
Unconditioned stimulus meat powder
Unconditioned response salivation
Conditioned stimulus bell/light
Conditioned response salivation
oAssociationism: stimuli experienced together (connected)
Unconditioned stimuli must be experienced just before the conditioned stimuli
A mechanism through which the meaning of one concept changes the meaning of
another (i.e. bell)
oInstrumental (an animals behaviour is a contributing factor in the sequence of
conditioning) conditioning:
Pavlov’s associates change procedure: flex dogs leg meat powder
www.notesolution.com
After a few tries dog flex leg without experimenter inducing it dog automatically
anticipates the reward to follow leg flexion thus ensuring that reward would come
about
FOCUSED ON measure of conditioning success: size of response (i.e. amount of
saliva) or rapidity of response is made (e.g. how quickly salivation begins following
stimulus)
Edward Thorndike: hungry cat escape puzzle box specific responses strengthened (decreased
time taken) through pairing with pleasant outcomes
Watson: father of behaviourism
oBehaviourism is a diametric opposite of awareness in psychology; however, behaviourism
relied too much on animals and while animals always reach for the cookie, humans dont
always take it. Human behaviourism cant be based solely on animal data.
oStimulus response psychology
oLimited himself to observables, erasing distinction between higher (humans) and lower
animals
oMade a distinction between external response and internal response, suggesting that what
we consider thought (mentation) is actually a form of subvocal speech in which we covertly
manipulate the muscles of our speech apparatus and related structures
oConsidered it the scientific duty of psychology to establish laws and principles for the
control of human action
oPersonality is the end product of our habit systems
oBy controlling the environment, you can control people
SKINNER:
oObsessed with environmental control Skinner crib; daughter
oFound S-R model inappropriate for psychology
oConcentrated on overt behaviour because it could be completely comprehended in terms
of responses to factors in the environment; trying to explain things internally is fiction
because these structures cannot be directly observed cant be measured systematically or
empirically.
oRespondent behaviour: reflexes or automatic responses that are elicited by stimuli
can be conditioned or changed through learning (i.e. dog learning to salivate) come to be
performed in the presence of the previously neutral stimulus through the process of
association
oFocused on instrumental (operant) conditioning involves reinforcing and shaping
spontaneous responses.
Rather than being elicited, most behavioural responses are actually emitted or sent
forth by the organism in relation to consequent environmental factors which either
reinforce the behaviour emitted or fail to do so.
VS. classical conditioning : nature of the behaviour which is freely made rather than
elicited by a stimulus and in the nature of the reinforcement, which follows rather
than precedes the behaviour
Operant response: behaviour that operates on the environment to produce a
reinforcing effect
Focuses on the response and asserts that responses followed by reinforcers are likely to
be carried out again, and the more we reinforce these responses (operants) the more
likely will they be to appear
FOCUSED ON measure of learning: frequency of conditioned responses
Reinforcement: whatever is empirically seen to increase the frequency of behaviour
Both positive and negative reinforcement means behaviour increases!
www.notesolution.com
Procedures:
Positive reinforcement : results when a pleasant stimulus is present, increasing
frequency
Negative reinforcement : happens when an aversive stimulus is removed,
increasing frequency
Extinction : when the behaviour not reinforced, thus disappears
Punishment : giving an aversive stimulus or taking away a positive stimulus
leading to decreasing frequency
Changing behaviour: method of successive approximations one can gradually
arrive at a desired (or randomly decided) behaviour, by taking it in stages of shaping;
small reinforcements in order to get work done
Schedules of reinforcement: frequency of food appearance in relation to operant
response
Reinforcements dont need to be given 100% (i.e. periodic, irregular), the
organism will continue its behavioural output.
Generalized conditioned reinforcers such as praise and affection are
learned and have the power to reinforce a great number of different behaviours;
can be self-given.
Continuous : continuously given effective for initially developing a behaviour
Fixed ratio : every other time
Variable ratio : one after 2 times, after 5, etc.
Fixed interval : given every minute
Variable interval : after 2 minutes, after 5, etc.
Ratio and interval reinforcement are more effective for maintaining the
behaviour
Punishment: an aversive consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and
prevent its repetition
Used to start, maintain, and prevent some behaviours
For it to be successful:
oAvailability of alternatives : an alternative response to the behaviour
exhibited must be available (i.e. dont punish the kid suck in a room if
youre not letting him out)
oBehavioural and situational specificity : must be clear what exact
behaviour you are punishing, and under what circumstances one will or
will not be punished SPECIFIC
oTiming and consistency : must be applied immediately after behaviour that
is to be prevented, every time it occurs otherwise confusion of which
behaviour is bad
oConditioning secondary punishing stimuli : verbal techniques, etc. work
too
oAvoiding displays of sympathy and affection : affection is a positive
reinforce and it defeats the purpose!
Dangers:
oArouses emotions
oDifficulty of consistency
oHard to gauge severity
oTeaches about power the big, powerful people get to hurt smaller, less
powerful people
oMotivates concealment automatically hide punishable behaviour
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Behaviourism Reaction from idea of unconsciousness; anything not observable, does not exist Assumptions: o Knowledge that does not come from direct public observation is invalid o Introspection is invalid because no one can verify someones introspection o Personality is a sum total of ones environment (rewards and punishments contained in physical and social world) Environment induces behaviour which represents learning (any change of behaviour as a function of ones experience with environment) it is the only and ultimate cause of behaviour Philosophical roots: o Empiricism: everything we know comes from our experience; Locke environment imprints on you o Associationism: claim that two things, or two ideas, or thing and an idea, become mentally associated together if they are repeatedly experienced as close together in time The whole is exactly the sum of its parts o Gestalt psychology: the whole is different from the sum of its parts Our perceptions of the world are not built merely from the pieces we perceive, the mind imposes on complicated stimuli a general form that has meaning different from its parts o Reductionism: conceptualism of knowledge as including simple associations between small facts Understanding a large phenomenon by breaking it down into small constituent parts Personality consists of persons inventory of learned associations, or even physiological mechanisms, that can be considered separately o Hedonism: People learn in order to seek pleasure and avoid pain reason why rewards and punishments shape behaviour Epicurus: purpose of life to be free of pain and to pursue aesthetic enjoyment and peace of mind Led to utilitarianism: the best society is the arrangement that crease the most happiness for the largest number of people o Problem? The majority could strip minoritys rights and happiness Sadness is a signalling mechanism and without it, instead of allowing info, it twists your emotional system Pavlov: natural or spontaneous responses cold be made conditional upon the appearance of an unnatural stimulus o Classical conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus meat powder Unconditioned response salivation Conditioned stimulus belllight Conditioned response salivation o Associationism: stimuli experienced together (connected) Unconditioned stimuli must be experienced just before the conditioned stimuli A mechanism through which the meaning of one concept changes the meaning of another (i.e. bell) o Instrumental (an animals behaviour is a contributing factor in the sequence of conditioning) conditioning: Pavlovs associates change procedure: flex dogs leg meat powder www.notesolution.com After a few tries dog flex leg without experimenter inducing it dog automatically anticipates the reward to follow leg flexion thus ensuring that reward would come about FOCUSED ON measure of conditioning success: size of response (i.e. amount of saliva) or rapidity of response is made (e.g. how quickly salivation begins following stimulus) Edward Thorndike: hungry cat escape puzzle box specific responses strengthened (decreased time taken) through pairing with pleasant outcomes Watson: father of behaviourism o Behaviourism is a diametric opposite of awareness in psychology; however, behaviourism relied too much on animals and while animals always reach for the cookie, humans dont always take it. Human behaviourism cant be based solely on animal data. o Stimulus response psychology o Limited himself to observables, erasing distinction between higher (humans) and lower animals o Made a distinction between external response and internal response, suggesting that what we consider thought (mentation) is actually a form of subvocal speech in which we covertly manipulate the muscles of our speech apparatus and related structures o Considered it the scientific duty of psychology to establish laws and principles for the control of human action o Personality is the end product of our habit systems o By controlling the environment, you can control people SKINNER: o Obsessed with environmental control Skinner crib; daughter o Found S-R model inappropriate for psychology o Concentrated on overt behaviour because it could be completely comprehended in terms of responses to factors in the environment; trying to explain things internally is fiction because these structures cannot be directly observed cant be measured systematically or empirically. o Respondent behaviour: reflexes or automatic responses that are elicited by stimuli can be conditioned or changed through learning (i.e. dog learning to salivate) come to be performed in the presence of the previously neutral stimulus through the process of association o Focused on instrumental (operant) conditioning involves reinforcing and shaping spontaneous responses. Rather than being elicited, most behavioural responses are actually emitted or sent forth by the organism in relation to consequent environmental factors which either reinforce the behaviour emitted or fail to do so. VS. classical conditioning: nature of the behaviour which is freely made rather than elicited by a stimulus and in the nature of the reinforcement, which follows rather than precedes the behaviour Operant response: behaviour that operates on the environment to produce a reinforcing effect Focuses on the response and asserts that responses followed by reinforcers are likely to be carried out again, and the more we reinforce these responses (operants) the more likely will they be to appear FOCUSED ON measure of learning: frequency of conditioned responses Reinforcement: whatever is empirically seen to increase the frequency of behaviour Both positive and negative reinforcement means behaviour increases! www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit