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Midterm

Last Midterm Notes

17 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman

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East vs. West
Myths are metaphors such that they dont search for meaning (help me find something to
believe) but experience of meaning (help me find myself, so I can experience both myself and
the world
Myths: internal struggle people undertake to understand themselves
oFinding ones real’ self
oPath of a hero take courageous parts of yourself and battle other parts of yourself
ovs. Fairytales :
fairytales are imaginary and gratify wishes personal gratification; escape from
frustration and conflict (subjective function)
fairytales have no relation to each other
myth is a recognition of natural conflicts, serious representation of fundamental
truths (moral orientation, not escape)
myths form cycles
myths are stories about ourselves
same material, but different uses, and different beneficiaries
Oedipus:
oOracle : Tell the future by looking at the present. The aggressive nature of the king will
be reflected in his son.
oFate : predeterminism
oSphinx : the part of ourselves that we dont understand; your intellectual capacities mean
nothing arrogant become blinder to that aspect
oOedipus defeating the sphinx : Arrogance and aggression from father reflected in son.
oBlindness : lack of understanding of the qualities that brought the circumstances
oTragedy : potential unfulfilled.
lack of reflection
life has not been experienced
the way you approach your life depends on throwness.
Buddha:
oIdea of choice : the child will choose for himself. Even unconscious choices are choices.
(He can choose between being a world ruler and a world teacher ruler like father, or
teacher, his potential.)
oBuddha only exposed to beauty : fall in love with the idea and therefore unaffected by the
realities of the world; eventually realizes that the world is not like that and leaves
oTemptations:
Fear/As Mara : he tried to frighten Siddhartha with storms and armies of demons.
Siddhartha remained completely calm.
Desire/As Kama : he sent his three beautiful daughters to tempt him (sexual),
again to no avail.
Social duty/As Dharma : he tried to ensnare Siddhartha in his own ego by
appealing to his sense of social duty and pride.
If you feel like youre giving, then you feel like youre losing part of
yourself; when you help others, not out of generosity but to make yourself
feel good, it leaves the people youre helping out in a worse position than
they were.
Once you understand who you are, you can help others. Realize yourself.
Buddhism:
oMahayana (big ferry boat) :
adopted expressions from Taoism
www.notesolution.com
enlightenment possible for lay practitioners
bodhisattva : ideal; person dedicates life to the salvation of all sentient beings
dont accept full liberation until all others are free from suffering
compassion!
oTheravada/Hinayana (little ferry boat) :
Renunciation of worldly life and a monastic lifestyle arhat through practice
and discipline = liberation from suffering
Wisdom!
oDependent origination : everything connected to everything else causally existence is a
process of change; this is because that is; this is not because that is not
oRebirth :
Vedic sense : soul (atman) travels from one life to another (Brahma)
Annihilationist sense : humans are destroyed at death
Buddhist sense : middle; you die and someone else is born; I am one aspect of
the process that doesnt end (i.e. one bulb dies, you replace it, and there is still
light)
oFour Noble Truths (Buddhas darma):
i.The problem = suffering; disastisfaction (i.e. pain, illness, old age, not being able
to hold on to the ones we love forever)
ii.Cause = desire (trying to be something were not)
1.Attachment (greed and jealous love)
2.Aversion (hate, resentment)
iii.Elimination of liking/disliking dichotomy (using desire rather than being
used by it) - decrease anxiety = freedom from unnecessary psychological pain; rid
suffering by ridding craving.
iv.Eight-fold path:
WISDOM
1.Right understanding understanding the interconnectedness and
impermanence of everything
2.Right thinking cultivating thoughts of selfless detachment, compassion,
and non-harming
MORAL CONDUCT
3.Right speech abstaining from lying, slander, gossip, and injurious speech
4.Right action acting in ways that will benefit and not cause suffering to
oneself and others
5.Right livelihood avoiding ways of making a living that are based on the
exploitation of the suffering of animals or people
MENTAL DISCIPLINE (related to karma volitional action (word, deed,
thought); every action has effects or consequences that rebound”)
6.Right effort cutting off unwholesome thoughts before they can be
transformed into actions and nurturing wholesome ones
7.Right mindfulness maintaining full awareness of our actions and
experiences at the present moment and their likely consequences
8.Right concentration the disciplining, concentration, and one-pointedness
of mind resulting from the practice of meditation
oThree characteristics of existence:
Anicca :
Impermanence everything is changing
www.notesolution.com
Nothing immutable of permanent
Accepting this = avoidance of unrealistic expectations
Dukkha :
The dissatisfaction and distress that results from both attachment and
aversion
Solution = 4 noble truths
Anatta :
nonself
self is an illusion
No reality apart from the interconnected net of causal conditions that
make their existence possible
me and mine = craving, selfish desire, etc.
No essence of self or soul, apart from the conditions
oAll babies are Buddha babies (were already there by the time were there)
oHumans are composed of skandhas: (groups of elements 5) the self is empty and those
5 elements temporarily make you; there is no reality separated from them.
Form
Feelings
Perceptions
Impulses
Consciousness
oBuddhists seek nirvana, a mental state; no cravings, desires, dualistic ideas through
realization of annica and anatta
oSatori : an awakening to the reality of the universe that cannot be grasped through
intellectual analysis but must be experienced personally.
Western thought vs. Eastern Thought :
Western thoughtsEastern thought
Personality stability
Avoiding suffering
Understand ones real self:
actualizing ones potential through
activity (you need to do something)
Atman (individual soul/cult of
personality)
Change
joyful participation in suffering of
the world
Joy : fulfilling intrinsic potential
even if you go through pain, you
can still fulfill your potential
Understand ones real self:
actualizing ones potential through
awareness (you need to awaken to
something) understand
Anatta (non-self)
Buddhism: before and after
enlightenment, nothing changes
oCommon to all:
Reaching goals
Based on the lives of people that brought them up
Aspects of your experience not reflected in theories
Numbing from being exposed to so much suffering
Mirror Neurons:
oWhen you see someone act a certain way, your brain reacts as though youre doing it too
oNo difference between your pain and someone elses pain
www.notesolution.com

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Description
East vs. West Myths are metaphors such that they dont search for meaning (help me find something to believe) but experience of meaning (help me find myself, so I can experience both myself and the world Myths: internal struggle people undertake to understand themselves o Finding ones real self o Path of a hero take courageous parts of yourself and battle other parts of yourself o vs. Fairytales fairytales are imaginary and gratify wishes personal gratification; escape from frustration and conflict (subjective function) fairytales have no relation to each other myth is a recognition of natural conflicts, serious representation of fundamental truths (moral orientation, not escape) myths form cycles myths are stories about ourselves same material, but different uses, and different beneficiaries Oedipus: o Oracle : Tell the future by looking at the present. The aggressive nature of the king will be reflected in his son. o Fate: predeterminism o Sphinx: the part of ourselves that we dont understand; your intellectual capacities mean nothing arrogant become blinder to that aspect o Oedipus defeating the sphinx: Arrogance and aggression from father reflected in son. o Blindness: lack of understanding of the qualities that brought the circumstances o Tragedy: potential unfulfilled. lack of reflection life has not been experienced the way you approach your life depends on throwness. Buddha: o Idea of choice: the child will choose for himself. Even unconscious choices are choices. (He can choose between being a world ruler and a world teacher ruler like father, or teacher, his potential.) o Buddha only exposed to beauty: fall in love with the idea and therefore unaffected by the realities of the world; eventually realizes that the world is not like that and leaves o Temptations: FearAs Mara: he tried to frighten Siddhartha with storms and armies of demons. Siddhartha remained completely calm. DesireAs Kama: he sent his three beautiful daughters to tempt him (sexual), again to no avail. Social dutyAs Dharma: he tried to ensnare Siddhartha in his own ego by appealing to his sense of social duty and pride. If you feel like youre giving, then you feel like youre losing part of yourself; when you help others, not out of generosity but to make yourself feel good, it leaves the people youre helping out in a worse position than they were. Once you understand who you are, you can help others. Realize yourself. Buddhism: o Mahayana (big ferry boat): adopted expressions from Taoism www.notesolution.com enlightenment possible for lay practitioners bodhisattva: ideal; person dedicates life to the salvation of all sentient beings dont accept full liberation until all others are free from suffering compassion! o TheravadaHinayana (little ferry boat): Renunciation of worldly life and a monastic lifestyle arhat through practice and discipline = liberation from suffering Wisdom! o Dependent origination : everything connected to everything else causally existence is a process of change; this is because that is; this is not because that is not o Rebirth: Vedic sense: soul (atman) travels from one life to another (Brahma) Annihilationist sense: humans are destroyed at death Buddhist sense: middle; you die and someone else is born; I am one aspect of the process that doesnt end (i.e. one bulb dies, you replace it, and there is still light) o Four Noble Truths (Buddhas darma): i. The problem = suffering; disastisfaction (i.e. pain, illness, old age, not being able to hold on to the ones we love forever) ii. Cause = desire (trying to be something were not) 1. Attachment (greed and jealous love) 2. Aversion (hate, resentment) iii. Elimination of likingdisliking dichotomy (using desire rather than being used by it) - decrease anxiety = freedom from unnecessary psychological pain; rid suffering by ridding craving. iv. Eight-fold path: WISDOM 1. Right understanding understanding the interconnectedness and impermanence of everything 2. Right thinking cultivating thoughts of selfless detachment, compassion, and non-harming MORAL CONDUCT 3. Right speech abstaining from lying, slander, gossip, and injurious speech 4. Right action acting in ways that will benefit and not cause suffering to oneself and others 5. Right livelihood avoiding ways of making a living that are based on the exploitation of the suffering of animals or people MENTAL DISCIPLINE (related to karma volitional action (word, deed, thought); every action has effects or consequences that rebound) 6. Right effort cutting off unwholesome thoughts before they can be transformed into actions and nurturing wholesome ones 7. Right mindfulness maintaining full awareness of our actions and experiences at the present moment and their likely consequences 8. Right concentration the disciplining, concentration, and one-pointedness of mind resulting from the practice of meditation o Three characteristics of existence: Anicca: Impermanence everything is changing www.notesolution.com
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