PSY240H1 Study Guide - Structured Interview, Differential Diagnosis, Autonomic Nervous System

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16 Aug 2010
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๎‚ƒ Introduction
๎‚ƒ Psychological disorder: something which presents a psychological
dysfunction within the individual and is associated with stress and
impairment, and it is a response which is not typical or culturally
expected of the said person
๎‚ƒ psychological dysfunction: cognitive, emotional, behaviour change etc.
x cognitive: presence of delusions
o depression: indecisiveness
o anxiety: fear or threat
x emotional
o depression: sad mood
x behavioural
o depression: change in eating disorder
o anxiety: avoidence/escape behaviour
๎‚ƒ different degrees of dysfunction and can be represented on a continuum
x hard to draw the line
x distinguished based on time (ie. depression is 2 weeks)
x distinguished based on distress or impairment
o problem distinguishing psychopath based on this criteria
o problem based on impairment criteria is not good b/c ppl. Can
suppress them through avoidance and escape
x distinguished based on atypical response
o problem is that it is hard to define what is atypical
o very subjective and culturally dependent
o atypical if it violates some kind of social norm
๎‚ƒ culture relativism: abnormality can only be defined in reference to the
norms of a culture or society
The Mental Health Professionals
๎‚ƒ clinical psychologist (Ph.D., Psy.D.)
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๎‚ƒ Psychiatrist (M.D., F.R.C.P. (C))
x Can prescribe medication usually look at problem from biological
aspects
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๎‚ƒ Psychoanalyst (M.D., Ph.D.)
x long term psychological talk therapy
๎‚ƒ Social Workers (M.S.W.)
x works with families
๎‚ƒ Counseling Psychologist (Ph.D.)
Mental Health Professional
๎‚ƒ Consumer of science: enhancing the practice
๎‚ƒ evaluator of science: determining the effectiveness of the practice
๎‚ƒ creator of science: conducting research that leads to new procedures
useful in practice
Studying Psychological Disorders
๎‚ƒ Focus: clinical description
x prevalence of disorder (how many people in the population as a
whole experience the disorder)
x incidence (how many new cases arise within a given period of time)
x how does the problem onset? (ex. apparent/sudden and acute or
insidious and slow?)
x course of the disorder (episodic, chronic etc.)
x prognosis (anticipated outcome)
๎‚ƒ Causation (etiology)
x biological
x psychological vulnerability
x social factors
๎‚ƒ Treatment and Outcome
History of Psychopathology: Demonology
๎‚ƒ An evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person
๎‚ƒ ex. in Chinese , Egyptians and the Greeks
๎‚ƒ predominate perspective from 11th-15th Century
๎‚ƒ 13-16 Century, people obsessed with the devil
๎‚ƒ some people internalized the belief that they were witches and may have
actually suffered from psychological disorders, most ppl however were
not ill
๎‚ƒ non-forced confessions in England
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History of Psychopathology: The Somatogenic Perspective
๎‚ƒ Hippocrates (460-377AD) ยฑ Father of modern medicine
๎‚ƒ regarded the brain as the organ of wisdom
๎‚ƒ deviations resulted from brain abnormality (soma = body)
๎‚ƒ first classification of abnormal problems:
x 1. Mania
x 2. Melancholia
x 3. Frenitious (brain fever)
๎‚ƒ 4 fluids theory (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm)
x imbalance of fluids resulted in mental health problems
๎‚ƒ treatment included: stroll, blood letting, nutrition
History of Psychopathology: Asylums & Biological Base
๎‚ƒ germ theory of disease resulted from discovery and linkage of syphilis
and mental health problems
๎‚ƒ ECT, insulin injection therapy
๎‚ƒ neuroleptics: neurotransmitters can reduce psychotic emergence
๎‚ƒ confinement began in 15th and 16C
๎‚ƒ St. Mary of Bethelem
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๎‚ƒ Pinel: primary figure in moral treatment movement which introduced
humanitarian treatments in asylums (usually reserved to upper classes)
๎‚ƒ drugs turned out to be used in treatment
๎‚ƒ first asylum in Canada opened in Quebec (1850-1900)
x mirrored the conditions of early European asylums
History of Psychopathology: Psychogenesis
๎‚ƒ psychological explanations for mental disorders
๎‚ƒ Mesmer (1743-1815): used rods in bathtubs to hypnotize his patients,
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๎‚ƒ Charcot (1825-1893): hypnosis, meets with Bruerer and Bruerer is most
famous for Anna O. by helping her to talk about past upsetting events
this is refered to as the cathartic method
x Talking with patients under hypnosis
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PSY240H1 Full Course Notes
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Document Summary

S psychological disorder: something which presents a psychological dysfunction within the individual and is associated with stress and impairment, and it is a response which is not typical or culturally expected of the said person. S psychological dysfunction: cognitive, emotional, behaviour change etc. N cognitive: presence of delusions: depression: indecisiveness, anxiety: fear or threat. N behavioural: depression: change in eating disorder, anxiety: avoidence/escape behaviour. S different degrees of dysfunction and can be represented on a continuum. N distinguished based on time (ie. depression is 2 weeks) N distinguished based on distress or impairment: problem distinguishing psychopath based on this criteria, problem based on impairment criteria is not good b/c ppl. N distinguished based on atypical response: problem is that it is hard to define what is atypical, very subjective and culturally dependent, atypical if it violates some kind of social norm. S culture relativism: abnormality can only be defined in reference to the norms of a culture or society.

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