Amnesia for events that occur after an injury—that is, the inability to form new memories. Compare
to retrograde amnesia—the inability to remember information from the past.
Inability to remember events from one’s own childhood. Maybe due to language development or
immature parts of the brain
A procedure in which pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response causes the
neutral stimulus to elicit that response.
Priming that occurs when the enhancement caused by a priming stimulus is based on the meaning of
the stimulus. For example, presentation of the word furniture causing a faster response to later
presentation of the word chair.
memory Memory that involves conscious recollections of events or facts that we have learned in the past.
Episodic memory Memory for specific events that have happened to the person having the memory. These events are
usually remembered as a personal experience that occurred at a particular time and place. Episodic
and semantic memory together make up declarative memory.
Explicit memory Memory that involves conscious recollections of events or facts that we have learned in the past.
Also called declarative memory or conscious memory.
Implicit memory Memory that occurs when an experience affects a person’s behavior, even though the person is not
aware that he or she has had the experience. Also called nondeclarative memory.
A condition caused by prolonged vitamin B1 deficiency that leads to destruction of areas on the
frontal and temporal lobes that causes severe impairments in memory.
A memory mechanism that can hold large amounts of information for long periods of time. Long–
term memory is one of the stages in the modal model of memory.
Mental time travel According to Tulving, the defining property of the experience of episodic memory, in which a
person travels back in time in his or her mind to reexperience events that happened in the past. See
Memory that occurs when an experience affects a person’s behavior, even though the person is not
aware that he or she has had the experience.
Some well-learned information can last permanently
Last for less than a day; often no clear precipitation factor nor other neurological deficits; cause
unclear; memory for more than a few minutes in the past typically impaired
A change in response to a stimulus caused by the previous presentation of the same or a similar
Memory for how to carry out highly practiced skills. Procedural memory is a type of implicit
memory because although people can carry out a skilled behavior, they often cannot explain exactly
how they are able to do so.
Propaganda effect People are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, just because
of prior exposure to the statements.
Identifying a stimulus that was encountered earlier. Stimuli are presented during a study period and
then, later, the same stimuli plus other, new stimuli are presented. The participants’ task is to pick
the stimuli that were originally presented.
Repetition priming When an initial presentation of a stimulus affects the person’s response to the same stimulus when it
is presented later.
Loss of memory for something that happened prior to an injury or traumatic event such as a
concussion. See also Anterograde amnesia.
Semantic memory Memory for knowledge about the world that is not tied to any specific personal experience.
Semantic and episodic memory together make up declarative memory.
Consolidation The process that transforms new memories into a state in which they are more resistant to disruption.
See also Standard model of consolidation.
Cued recall A procedure for testing memory in which a participant is presented with cues, such as words or phrases,
to aid recall of previously experienced stimuli. See also Free recall.
Processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an item to something else. Deep processing is
usually associated with elaborative rehearsal. See also Depth of processing; Shallow processing.
The idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being encoded into memory can be deep or
shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal.
Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning and is associated with
maintenance rehearsal. See also Levels of processing.
Rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or making connections
between that item and prior knowledge. Compare to Maintenance rehearsal.
Encoding The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory.
The principle that we learn information together with its context. This means that presence of the
context can lead to enhanced memory for the information.
Free recall A procedure for testing memory in which the participant is asked to remember stimuli that were
previously presented. See also Cued recall.
Memory for material is better when a person generates the material him– or herself, rather than
passively receiving it.
When amnesia is most severe for events that occurred just prior to an injury and becomes less severe for
earlier, more remote events.
Part of levels–of–processing theory that states that there are different depths of processing that can be
achieved as information is being encoded. See also Depth of processing; Levels–of–processing
The idea that memory depends on how information is encoded, with better memory being achieved
when processing is deep than when processing is shallow. Deep processing involves attention to
meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little
attention to meaning and is associated with maintenance rehearsal.
Long–term The increased firing that occurs in a neuron due to prior activity at the synapse.
Rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other
information. Compare to Elaborative rehearsal.
An area in the temporal lobe that consists of the hippocampus and a number of surrounding structures.
Damage to the MTL causes problems in forming new long–term memories.
The idea, associated with memory consolidation, that the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of remote
memories, especially episodic memories. This contrasts with the standard model of memory, which
proposes that the hippocampus is involved only in the retrieval of recent memories.
A learning task in which participants are first presented with pairs of words, then one word of each pair
is presented and the task is to recall the other word.
Reactivation A process that occurs during memory consolidation, in which the hippocampus replays the neural
activity associated with a memory. During reactivation, activity occurs in the network connecting the
hippocampus and the cortex. This activity results in the formation of connections between the cortical
Reconsolidation A process proposed by Nader and others that occurs when a memory is reactivated. This process is
similar to the consolidation that occurs after initial learning, although it apparently occurs more rapidly.
Rehearsal The process of repeating a stimulus over and over, usually for the purpose of remembering it, that keeps
the stimulus active in short–term memory.
memory Memory for events that occurred long ago.
Retrieval The process of remembering information that has been stored in long–term memory.
Retrieval cues Cues that help a person remember information that is stored in memory.
effect Memory for a word is improved by relating the word to the self.
Processing that involves repetition with little attention to meaning. Shallow processing is usually
associated with maintenance rehearsal. See also Deep processing; Depth of processing.
Spacing effect The advantage in performance caused by short study sessions separated by breaks from studying.
Proposes that memory retrieval depends on the hippocampus during consolidation, but that once
consolidation is complete, retrieval no longer depends on the hippocampus.
The principle that memory is best when a person is in the same state for encoding and retrieval. This
principle is related to encoding specificity.
A process of consolidation that involves structural changes at synapses that happen rapidly, over a
period of minutes. See also Consolidation; Systems consolidation.
A consolidation process that involves the gradual reorganization of circuits within brain regions and
takes place on a long time scale, lasting weeks, months, or even years. See also Consolidation;
Testing effect Enhanced performance on a memory test caused by being tested on the material to be remembered.
Transfer–When the type of task that occurs during encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval.