Rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other
information. Compare to Elaborative rehearsal.
An area in the temporal lobe that consists of the hippocampus and a number of surrounding structures.
Damage to the MTL causes problems in forming new long–term memories.
The idea, associated with memory consolidation, that the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of remote
memories, especially episodic memories. This contrasts with the standard model of memory, which
proposes that the hippocampus is involved only in the retrieval of recent memories.
A learning task in which participants are first presented with pairs of words, then one word of each pair
is presented and the task is to recall the other word.
Reactivation A process that occurs during memory consolidation, in which the hippocampus replays the neural
activity associated with a memory. During reactivation, activity occurs in the network connecting the
hippocampus and the cortex. This activity results in the formation of connections between the cortical
Reconsolidation A process proposed by Nader and others that occurs when a memory is reactivated. This process is
similar to the consolidation that occurs after initial learning, although it apparently occurs more rapidly.
Rehearsal The process of repeating a stimulus over and over, usually for the purpose of remembering it, that keeps
the stimulus active in short–term memory.
memory Memory for events that occurred long ago.
Retrieval The process of remembering information that has been stored in long–term memory.
Retrieval cues Cues that help a person remember information that is stored in memory.
effect Memory for a word is improved by relating the word to the self.
Processing that involves repetition with little attention to meaning. Shallow processing is usually
associated with maintenance rehearsal. See also Deep processing; Depth of processing.
Spacing effect The advantage in performance caused by short study sessions separated by breaks from studying.
Proposes that memory retrieval depends on the hippocampus during consolidation, but that once
consolidation is complete, retrieval no longer depends on the hippocampus.
The principle that memory is best when a person is in the same state for encoding and retrieval. This
principle is related to encoding specificity.
A process of consolidation that involves structural changes at synapses that happen rapidly, over a
period of minutes. See also Consolidation; Systems consolidation.
A consolidation process that involves the gradual reorganization of circuits within brain regions and
takes place on a long time scale, lasting weeks, months, or even years. See also Consolidation;
Testing effect Enhanced performance on a memory test caused by being tested on the material to be remembered.
Transfer–When the type of task that occurs during encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval.