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PSY270H1 Study Guide - Convergence Problem, Bus Driver, Problem Solving

Course Code
Christine Burton

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PSY270 JUNE 19, 2012
Need everthing to solve so cannot really be modular,
Role of past knowledge, more knowledge have better able to solve problem
Problem solving
- Path to goal isn’t obcius, solution isn’t obvious
- Not necessarily hard, it ranges, could be what eat for breakfast no hard but solution not obvious
unless only have bread in house
- Range in diffcutly
- Exists within a problem space (computer science)
- Newell and simon deceloped first computer to solve problems better then humans,
- N and s talked about these to describe a computer which is excellent to how humans define
problems and solve them
- It is the way not a way
- Problem space contains 3 features
- The initial starting off
- The goal end place
- Between any number of intermediate could be number of things you could do
- Envision problem space as a maze, know what to end up but not obvious how to get there
- Need to know where to end up problem is not what is goal but how to get there
- What are best intermediate states to get there
- Best way not random go in any direction
- Pronlems have different surface features the problem is different
The problem cycle
- Go through a series of steps that can solve all problems make up cycle
- 1. Problem identification solve first have to recognize have problem, not just reco have
problem but what it is. Couple not getting along problem bobby abd sussy, she is distant identify
there is a problem if she is getting distant bec he getting to intense says I think suzzy is feelin
neglected, if identify wrong problem get wrong solution coreectly identifying what problem is
- 2. Define problem and how to represent it, from abstract idea to put it onto page r solidy in
mind. Some easy put into sentice, better ways depending on problem. Mary is 10 best way is to
use symbols to represtn solution , use diagrams symbols

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- 3. Stragety formulation, for monk graph then answer, first solve for mary then sovle susan,
stragety to solve problem
- 4. May need to organie information, may need to gather more information look something up
on interent
- 5.Resource allocation allocate resources most efficiently, before resources as cognitive
resources, but with problem solving the real world, cognitive resources allocate but other
resources like monetary, others
- 6. Monitoring, not spend so much time on a certain solution
- 7. Evalutaiotn did it work or did not
- Not go through in this order, this may be the most sufficient way, this is not an automatic
uncncious process we decide what to do, can skip monitoring and may get to solution, they are
not required nor in that order
Ways to rep
- Symbols
- And diagrams
- Using diagrams with buddist, not when but id there is a time, easy way tio solve when draw as
Bus driver problem ,.
Ask name of bus driver,
- Well defined problems have predetermine solution, procedure, once goal on path , math
prpobelm go through rules one initial one goal and one path
- Ill defined not a clear path, many paths, how to open a can with a can withough a can opener,
ill defined no initial and goal but how to get there is not defined
- Solution is path
Well defined
- One correct answer and predetermined path
- Depending on problem differtn path to take
- One way to apply algoritm - which is series of rules u apply repreasdelty apply enough able to
come up with answer
- Well defined not neccesarly one path but path everyone agrees that garuntees solution, may
be two or three
- Ill defined could be many, such as deciding the major no one agrees best way to get
- Algerbra apply role get answer

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- Albl anagram for ball, use algoritm all possible combinations, may take a while to aplly the rule
over and over again, this example not many word
- Number of iterations less practile
- Use a heurtic, rule of thumb, relying pf past knowldeg and experience, what has used in past ,
this word may take three letter grouping take knowldeg of English, use heuristic can come up
woth word
- However heuristic may lead you astry like the word gnome, use heuritsc of words that go
together at begingin of word like gn for gnome
- Heuristic is rule or stragety
Problem solving heuristic
- These are ones newell and simon plugged in
- Not good to have algrothims all the time not the computing power
- Turns out how humans use to solve problems
- First used in computers we do them naturally
- Working forward is one, going on step at a time taking immediate step forward
- No car need money no money work
- Problem with heurisitic may not be efficient stragety , for other aspects of life like dropping out
of school
- Working backwards, start goal and what need to get there, clinical osych phd, grad school, gre,
- Generate and test, think off all and try them out
- Like list of things I eat with letter c at beginning,
- Can be useful if number of options generated is llimited or way to test is easy
- Job is poor, generate large number but test all of them
- Means ends analysis take big problem of problem space and breaks into sub goals sub
problems, each sub problem little amount of space
- Not algrothim bc not one rule but stragety,
By analogy
- Not just well deifined ones but others well best
- Analagoy use previous knowledge how we solve in past and apply to new problem only work if
- Isomorp, basically the same problems same strcutuer different surface features
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