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PSY270H1 Study Guide - Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, Confirmation Bias


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Christine Burton

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PSY270 JUNE 21, 2012
DECISION MAKING
EXAM MC AND SA, 40 MC, AND 13 SHORT ANSWER 50 POINTS, SIMILAR TO ONES SEEN BEFORE
DECRIBING THEORY EXPERIMENT SUPORT IT, FILL IN BLANK TRUE FALSE, DIAGRAM, NOTHING HAVENT
SEEN BEFORE, CUMALITVE ALL LECTURE AND TEXTBOOK, 35% FIRST 4 AND 35% FROM TEST 2 AND 30
LEAST 2 LECTURE APPROXIMATE, 3 HOUR EXAM
REVIEW SESSION,
TODAYS GOALS
START OFF TALK ABOUT REASONING FIRST NEED REASONING TO MAKE SOUND DESCION
ARE WE GOOD AT LOGICAL REASONING, BC OF COGNTIVE LIMITIATIONS DON’T MAKE MOST RATIONALE
DESCIONS, MAY LESS RATION
THEMES
ROLE OF COGNITIVE LIMITATIONS, LIMITED RESOURCES, MAJOR LIMITING FACTOR IF CAN MAKE GOOD
DESCION
BU TD, REALLY TOP DOWN, AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE CAN, WHILE WHAT HAPPENED IN PAST,
DM AND RESON
- When making descin more then one option to chose from
- Reasoning coming to conclsuioin based on given premissies
Reasoning
- Invovllves coming t conclusion given premisies
- Ways of reasoning getting gto truth
- Rationalism we are born reasonale rationale knowing truth if want to come to logical
conclusion use deduction apply all lknowledge and apply to any situation, take knowldeg and
apply it
- Empirixs, to make descion or reason observe the world put pirces together, get something
logical and is induction
Cont
- Deduction, general principles born with and apply to specific instances
- Induction reverse, not know general priniceples obserse instances put together and come up
with general principles
- Reasoning strageties influences theories of reasoning

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- Deduction was way we make desicon Socrates, old ideas, very influential, humans coompletley
rationale all apply principles always rationale in reasoning and desion making
- In mid 1700s push for induction, came about development and interest in science, maybe not
born knowin everything hve to observe how world works
- Recently only need induction to know truth
- Theories started out ration ded and recently to maybe not perfectly rationale maybe induction
Deductive reasoning
- Cond reasoning info given take form if then, set of proposition first one is if then statement,
second infor of state and draw conclusion
- If then, second if not take out garbage, conclusion smells
- Given info rpremises know and apply to situation
- Deductive spate tuth form validity, truth what think it is true or false, validity is reasoning,
logical but not end up being true
- If feet then smart, second Andrew has big feet Andrew is smart valid given two premises, but
not true
- Conclusion need not be true if premises aren’t true
- Assume given info is true
- If not statement reaosnig valid not true
- Cant know truth just by using reasoning strageties
Conditional reasoning
- Antecedent if part of statement first part
- Consequence second the then part
- 2 actions on part affirm or deny, affirm its true, deny it is false
- Not actually true or false just saying it is
- Affirm happedn, deny didn’t happen
Contd
- 4 actions do
- Affirm ant, affurm con, deny ant, dent cons
- Only two of the actions are valid reasoning strageties, two apply to any instances
- Affirming ant and deny consequenceonly two take to get valid conclsuin
Contd table
- 2 stargeties only thing duw come to vlaid conclusion
- If ct anima
- Afrimng ant this is cat and therefore an animal
- Deconf part not a animal not a cat
- Affirm con first continue affirming

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- Deny consequence deny antecedent
- This is an aninal therefore a cat
- Not cat therefore not animal
- Reverse and negate the terms
Wason slection task
- 4 card, something printed
- Rule test, vowel on one side even number on other side
- Which one flip to see valid
- Flip e affirms the antecedent testing first part true vowle onside vowel
- Flipping the seven denies the consequent
- This rule only says something about vowels must have even number nothing of consants or odd
numbers
- What people do not flip J
- Majority think have to flip 6 confirms consequent
- Demonstrates not something wrong with logic, only 2 logial answers, however not the way we
think
Contd
- Maybe not think perfectly logicall
- We use a confirmation bias affirm ant and consequent
- Not test things are wrong
- Not reasoning ligiacal bc only look to confirm not to refutre
Contd
- 17 and beer,
- Beer afrimes antecxednt
- Trouble reasoning with abstract tasks
Belief bias effect
- Not valid reasoning, bc affirming the consequent
- Why not cut, why else bleeding
- If blleding not bleeding bc ur sad, or sad, it is bc u cut it in real world
- Doesn’t matter real world says
- If fingrer cut then blled, my finger bleeding then cut
- Invalid conclusioin is valid bc of real world
- Invlaid use knowledge to think is valid
- We know not true in real world only bleed cut, but logic many ways to bleed
- Can deny consequence sand therefor not cut
Categorical syllogiams
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