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psy290 lecs 8-10 (chp9,12-15).pdf

123 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY290H1
Professor
Junchul Kim

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Eating, Sex & Hormones 12-05-22 1:30 PM
Eating
Believe:
o hunger & eating are normally triggered when body’s energy
resources fall below prescribed optimal level (set point)
Assume:
o hunger & eating system evolved to supply body with right
amount of energy
Digestion
Purpose of hunger:
o inc probability of eating
Purpose of eating:
o supply body with molecular building blocks & energy needed
to survive & function
Digestion:
o gastrointestinal process of breaking down food & absorbing its
constituents into the body
! Chewing breaks up food & mixes it with saliva
! Saliva lubricates food & begins digestions
! Swallowing moves food & drink down esophagus to
stomach
! Stomach functions as a storage reservoir, hydrochloric
acid breaks food into small particles, pepsin breaks down
protein into aa
! Stomach empties contents through pyloric sphincter into
duodenum
! Digestive enzymes in duodenum break down proteins to
aa, starch & complex sugars into simple sugars, simple
sugars & aa pass through duodenum wall into
bloodstream to liver
! Fats emulsified by bile (manufactured by liver, stored in
gall bladder), carried by small ducts in duodenum wall
into lymphatic system
! Remaining water & electrolytes absorbed from waste in
large intestines, rest ejected from anus
Energy Storage
Lipids (fat), Amino acid (protein), Glucose (carbohydrates)
o Most stored as fats, little as glycogen & protein
Changes in body weight:
o changes in amount of stored body fat
Glycogen:
o stored in liver & muscles (easily converted into glucose)
Fats preferred:
o 1g of fat stores 2x as much energy as 1g glycogen, glycogen
holds water
3 Phases of Energy Metabolism
Cephalic phase
o Preparatory phase: sight, smell, thought of food
o Ends when food starts to be absorbed into blood stream
Absorptive phase
o Energy absorbed into bloodstream from meal is meeting
body’s immediate energy needs
Fasting phase
o Unstored energy from previous meal has been used & body is
withdrawing energy from reserves to meet its immediate
energy req
Flow of energy controlled by 2 pancreatic hormones
Insulin: lots in cephalic & absorptive phase,
o Promotes use of glucose,
o Conversion of bloodborne fuels to forms that can be stored
o Storage of glycogen in liver & muscle, fat in adipose tissue,
protein in muscle
! Cephalic:
" lower levels of bloodborne fuel
! Absorptive:
" minimize increasing levels of bloodborne fuels
(use & store them)
Glucagon: high in fasting phase
o Low levels of insulin:
! Glucose saved for brain cells (doesn’t req insulin to enter)
! Gluconeogenesis: conversion of glycogen & protein into
glucose
o High levels of glucagon:
! Release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue
" used as main fuel
! Conversion of free fatty acids to ketones
" used by muscles, later brain
Theories of hunger & Eating: Set Points
People attribute hunger to:
o presence of energy deficit
o view eating as means by which energy resources of body
returned to optimal level
After meal:
o energy resources assumed to be near set point & decline
Energy falls below set point:
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Description
Eating SexHormones 120522 130 PM EatingBelieveo hungereating are normally triggered when bodys energy resources fall below prescribed optimal level set pointAssume ohungereating system evolved to supply body with right amount of energy DigestionPurpose of hungero inc probability of eatingPurpose of eatingo supply body with molecular building blocksenergy needed to survivefunctionDigestiono gastrointestinal process of breaking down foodabsorbing its constituents into the bodyChewing breaks up foodmixes it with salivaSaliva lubricates foodbegins digestionsSwallowing moves fooddrink down esophagus to stomachStomach functions as a storage reservoir hydrochloric acid breaks food into small particles pepsin breaks down protein into aaStomach empties contents through pyloric sphincter into duodenumDigestive enzymes in duodenum break down proteins to aa starchcomplex sugars into simple sugars simple sugarsaa pass through duodenum wall into bloodstream to liverFats emulsified by bile manufactured by liver stored in gall bladder carried by small ducts in duodenum wall into lymphatic systemRemaining waterelectrolytes absorbed from waste in large intestines rest ejected from anus Energy StorageLipids fat Amino acid protein Glucose carbohydrateso Most stored as fats little as glycogenproteinChanges in body weighto changes in amount of stored body fatGlycogeno stored in livermuscles easily converted into glucoseFats preferredo 1g of fat stores 2x as much energy as 1g glycogen glycogen holds water 3 Phases of Energy MetabolismCephalic phaseo Preparatory phase sight smell thought of food o Ends when food starts to be absorbed into blood streamAbsorptive phase o Energy absorbed into bloodstream from meal is meeting bodys immediate energy needsFasting phase o Unstored energy from previous meal has been usedbody is withdrawing energy from reserves to meet its immediate energy req Flow of energy controlled by 2 pancreatic hormonesInsulin lots in cephalicabsorptive phaseo Promotes use of glucose o Conversion of bloodborne fuels to forms that can be stored o Storage of glycogen in livermuscle fat in adipose tissue protein in muscleCephalic lower levels of bloodborne fuelAbsorptive minimize increasing levels of bloodborne fuels usestore themGlucagon high in fasting phase o Low levels of insulin Glucose saved for brain cells doesnt req insulin to enterGluconeogenesis conversion of glycogenprotein into glucose o High levels of glucagonRelease of free fatty acids from adipose tissue used as main fuel 012345613789620124 Conversion of free fatty acids to ketones used by muscles later brain 33612011123045016723831191383314016718111391031612391913833238A15238B3321CD3332382321 Theories of hungerEating Set PointsPeople attribute hunger to o presence of energy deficit o view eating as means by which energy resources of body returned to optimal levelAfter mealo energy resources assumed to be near set pointdecline Energy falls below set point
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