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PSY320H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cognitive Dissonance, Cognitive Miser, Implicit Attitude


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY320H1
Professor
Will Huggon
Study Guide
Final

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Lecture 4 part 2- Attitudes and behavior
-
Lecture 5- Attitudes and behavior
Theory of reasoned action
- Before doing a behavior there is
o Salient beliefs
o Probability of these beliefs coming true
o Evaluation (good or bad) of these beliefs
- And whether the person does the behavior depends = sum (probability of belief coming
true x evaluation)
- Rated on a scale from -3 to +3
Subjective norms about behavior
- other peoples’ opinions are important
- two components
o normative beliefs (referent’s opinion)
o motivation to comply (how important their opinion is to you)
- whether the person does the behavior depends on sum (NB X MC) , both on scale from -
3 to +3
Intention
- Intention (probability of behavior) = own attitude towards the behavior (probability of
consequences coming true, and evaluations of these consequences) + subjective norms
(what you believe other people will think about the behavior, and how important these
other people’s opinions are to you.
Priming the private self vs. the collective self
- Influence on attitude and subjective norms
- Done by making participants think about what makes them different vs. similar to their
friends
- Priming the private self = attitudes more predictive of behavioral intention
- Priming the collective self = subjective norms more predictive
Previous behavior can also predict behavior

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- Learned preferences or habits of behaving
o Predict intention and behavior
Personal factors
- Attitudinal ambivalence
o Ex: dieting, ambivalence = care a lot about the diet, and ALSO care a lot about
eating/food.
o High ambivalence = high positive attitude and high negative attitude
o High ambivalence individuals’ behaviors and intentions are hard to predict,
maybe influenced by the positive or negative component. Depends on context
- Self-monitoring
o People who are high in self-monitoring: less likely to display attitude consistent
behavior (conform to others behavior)
Theory of planned behavior
- Modification of theory of reasoned action
- Added component: perceived behavioral control = the extent to which someone believes
they can behave in an attitude congruent way (or influence the outcomes of the
behavior). Ex: standing up to bullies
- Perceived behavioral control may be different from actual behavioral control
Self-awareness
- Can influence behavior
- Children taking Halloween candy example
Attitude accessibility
- Associative network = attitude objects (and things associated with them) are nodes in an
associative network. Attitudes are what connect attitude objects to their evaluations
(which are also nodes).
- More frequently the link is activated, the stronger the attitude becomes.
- when one concept is activated, this can activate connected concepts too
- The stronger the link between attitude object and summary evaluation, stronger the
attitude, the higher the accessibility, more likely it will influence behavior
Attitude object:
CAR
Associated thing:
ugly
Evaluation:
NEGATIVE

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Attitude to behavior process model:
- Fazio
- Attitude activation selective attention influence perception interpretation of the
event behavior
- Social norms definition of the situation behavior
Lecture 6
Fazio’s mode model
- Motivation and cognitive capacity to process information, if yes, then deliberative
processing model and general attitude is activated and influences behavior
- If no, then spontaneous processing model is activated, if there is strong, accessible
attitude, then general attitude is activated and influence behavior. If no strong salient
attitude, then behavior is unrelated to attitude
Response latency
- Can be a measure of attitude accessibility and strength
- The stronger/more accessible an attitude is more likely it will influence behavior
Perception and attitudes
- Perception is subjective, depends on interpretation not only sensation
Accessibility and self-reports
- Attitude accessibility can affect self-reports
- Ex: how satisfied are you with your life + how often do you date (vs. other way around)
- Ex: recall 6 vs. 12 incidents of being assertive + how assertive are you
Priming
+
+
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