The Yale Attitude Change Approach: empirical research on the effects of persuasive
communications; provided facts about the communicator’s credibility, message appeals,
and audience members’ personality traits.
The Hovland/Yale model of persuasion:
Communication Message Learning Attitude Change
The Cognitive Response Model of persuasion: asserts that people’s own mental reactions
to the message play a critical role in the persuasion process, typically a more important
role than the message itself.
Communication Cognitive Responses Attitude Change
3. Thoughts that
a)Originate with the message,
b) Creatively elaborate on the message, or are
c)Irrelevant to the message
Forewarning occurs when a persuader warns people that they will soon be exposed to a
Distraction: Off-beat communication effect; sometimes people are distracted from
paying attention to a communication to which they disagree.
Dual-process Models: claim that there are two different mechanisms by which
communication affects attitudes.
1) Heuristic-Systemic Model
2) Elaboration Likelihood Model- the two routes to persuasion are referred to as the
central and peripheral routes/processes.
When processing peripherally, people invariably rely on simple decision-making rules or
ELM: the key factors that determine processing strategy are motivation and ability to
process a message.
Individuals are high in involvement when they perceive that an issue is personally
relevant or bears directly on their own lives. They are low in involvement when they
believe that an issue has little or no impact on their own lives.
The need for cognition: a need to understand the world and to employ thinking to
accomplish this goal. People who score high in need for cognition “prefer complex to
simple problems” and “enjoy a task that involves coming up with new solutions to
problems”. These individuals tend to prefer central to peripheral processing.
There are three fundamental communicator characteristics: authority, credibility and
Credibility is defined as the attitude toward a source of communication held at a given
time by a receiver. It is an audience member’s perception of the communicator’s
qualities. Expertise, trustworthiness, and goodwill are primary attributes of credibility.
There is a complicating factor, however: context.
A knowledge bias is the presumption that a communicator has a biased view of an issue.
The reporting bias is the perception that the communicator has opted not to report or
disclose certain facts or points of view.
A one-sided message presents one perspective on the issue. A two-sided
communication offers arguments on behalf of both the persuader’s position and the
Two-sided messages influence attitudes more than one-sided messages, provided one
very important condition is met: The message refutes the opposition arguments. When
the communication mentions but does not demolish, an opponent’s viewpoint, a two-
sided message is actually less compelling than a one-sided message.
Evidence: factual statements originating from a source other than the speaker, objects not
created by the speaker, and opinions of persons other than the speaker that are offered in
support of the speaker’s claims. Evidence consists of factual assertions, quantitative
information, eyewitness statements, testimonials, or opinions advanced by credible
Fear: an internal emotional reaction composed of psychological and physiological
dimensions that may be aroused when a serious and personally irrelevant threat is
Fear appeal: a persuasive communication that tries to scare people into changing their
attitudes by conjuring up negative consequences that will occur if they do not comply
with the message recommendations.
The yale attitude change approach: empirical research on the effects of persuasive communications; provided facts about the communicator"s credibility, message appeals, and audience members" personality traits. The cognitive response model of persuasion: asserts that people"s own mental reactions to the message play a critical role in the persuasion process, typically a more important role than the message itself. Communication cognitive responses attitude change: proarguements, counterarguments, thoughts that, originate with the message, creatively elaborate on the message, or are c) Forewarning occurs when a persuader warns people that they will soon be exposed to a persuasive communication. Distraction: off-beat communication effect; sometimes people are distracted from paying attention to a communication to which they disagree. Dual-process models: claim that there are two different mechanisms by which communication affects attitudes: heuristic-systemic model, elaboration likelihood model- the two routes to persuasion are referred to as the central and peripheral routes/processes.