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PSY320H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Likert Scale, Electrodermal Activity, Construct Validity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY320H1
Professor
Christine Burton
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSY320 Midterm 1 Review
Lecture 1
Attitude: A summary evaluation or “evaluative judgment” of an attitude object that’s
based on cognitive, affective, and behavioural information. ABC.
- Includes +’ve and –‘ve aspects.
2 basic dimensions of an attitude:
- Valence (is it +’ve or –‘ve)
- Strength – Stronger attitudes will influence our behaviours more, be more persistent,
and more resistant. More likely to act consistently with attitude if it is stronger.
Attitudes influence how we perceive reality. They are subjective and constructive.
Assumptive world: My own world of everything I know (consciously and unconsciously).
- They are critical to our feeling of wholeness and OKness, so attitudes are a big part of
how OK we fell in a situation.
Attitudes help dictate how we relate to, and interpret, the social world.
Attitude structures:
- Unidimensional
- Bidimensional
- 3D
- Non-dimensional
Unidimensional:
- Affect: positive/negative scale.
Bidimensional:
- The two-factor theory of emotion.
- Affect and cognition.
- Cognitions help explain the physiological arousal.
- Attribution theory is the idea that arousal and cognition lead to our emotional
experiences.
oAdrenaline study: Given and told Ep, told what to expect. Given and told Ep.,
not told what to expect. Given, told to expect inaccurate effects. Given
placebo, not told what to expect. Waited in room with entertaining
confederate. Measured emotional experience. The ones who were facing
arousal and did not have an explanation for it reported the confederate as
raising their mood.
- We tend to look around for explanations for disruption to our physiological
equilibrium.
- If good and bad at the same time, ambivalent. If it isn’t good but isn’t bad,
indifference. Expansion of the positive/negative scale.
- Ambivalence:
oPotential ambivalence: Attitudes about objects in which we have
simultaneously positive and negative evaluations of the object. Not
subjectively experienced as ambivalence.
oFelt ambivalence: Feeling of tension consciously experienced when thinking
of an AO.
- We don’t weigh positive/negative equally, we have a negativity bias. Evolution
backing for negativity bias.
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-Positivity offset: We interpret neutral situations as mildly positive. Associated with
approach motivation; if we are not doing anything, got do something!
Tri-partite models of attitudes include a behavioural component:
- Attitudes are often inferred from how we are behaving towards something, or how we
previously behaved towards it. Think the safe driving petition/billboard study.
- Behaviour, Affect, and Cognition.
Non-dimensional model:
- AOs act as nodes in an associative network.
- AOs are associated with beliefs, which are also associated with evaluations (such as
+’ve or –‘ve).
- The more frequently links an association, the stronger it becomes. The associations
can change over time.
- The network does not activate with the same patterns each time.
Which model you use in a situation depends on your goals.
Attitude functions:
- Utilitarian function: Increase rewards, minimize punishments. Things that are good
for us we see as +’ve.
- Externalization/Ego-defense: Help protect us from internal conflict and bolster our
self-image. I’m bad at this, it’s stupid.
- Value-expressive: Allow us to gain an identity and gain social approval over that
identity. Pro-cycling.
- Object appraisal: Allow for quick access to how we feel towards a situation or object.
Leads to assimilating information based on previous notions. Not a perfect system.
- Knowledge: Attitudes organize information about attitude objects (I hate x, x uses y,
so I dislike y).
Lecture 2
Psychology often hard to measure, so we need to:
- Operationalize: Define a way in which it can be measured
- Measure.
Testing something require validity and reliability.
Validity: Are we measuring what we are supposed to be measuring?
Reliability: Are we measuring our construct well?
Validity can be broken down into:
- Face validity: Does the measure appear to measure the construct. Some scales should
not look at this (racism).
- Convergent validity: How does this scale relate to scales meant to assess
similar/related constructs? Test using both scales with same participants and look at
correlations. Though may want it to be unique in some way, so not too high or too
low a correlation.
- Discriminant validity: How does this scale relate to scales meant to measure
theoretically distinct constructs? Is it appropriately distinct enough?
- Content validity as well as construct validity.
oDoes the measure represent the entire domain it is measuring?
Reliability:
- Test-retest: Are scores consistent over time?
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- Internal consistency: Are the scale’s items hanging together? Are all questions
correlated and looking at the similar thing?
oMeasured using Cronbach’s alpha. Over 0.70 is good.
oA higher alpha is a narrower shot on the bullseye. But may not encompass the
whole thing. You don’t want to trade-off validity for higher internal
consistency.
Measures and methods:
- Self-report method:
oSemantic differential. Tests how the object is evaluated by the individual.
How you feel on x, good or bad.
oLikert scale. Asked to indicate how you feel on a range of options, from
strongly agree to strongly disagree.
oOne-item scales. Used when measuring a broad construct. Can be likert scale,
just the one item.
oSocial desirability needs to be taken into account. Can minimize with bogus
pipeline, speeded responses, behavioural measures, and informant reports.
Bogus pipline: Lie detector. People are more honest about their
feelings when they expect lying to be detected.
Speeded responses: People are more honest when rushed since the
truth is a faster connection. Can be stressful leading to mistakes.
Informant report: Others are often able to report biases that you may
not see yourself.
- Physiological measures:
oGalvanic skin response (GSR). Can measure an attitudes strength, but not
valence.
oFacial electromyography (EMG). Records muscle activity in the face
detecting subtle smiles or frowns.
- Implicit or indirect measures:
oEvaluative priming: AO of interest is used as a prime. Speed to hit button for
good or bad used to determine your feeling towards it.
oIAT: AOs used to activate evaluations. Match items and see which have a
quicker response. So young OR good word, and old OR bad word. Relative
speeds.
IATs predict subtle forms of discrimination better than explicit measures do.
Lecture 3
Value-expressive:
- Values are different from attitudes. Values are universal, attitudes are situation based
mostly.
- Main value types or broad goals include power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation,
self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security.
- Values can shape our ideologies.
- Attitudes can form and shape other attitudes. So if you don’t like violence, may
dislike guns.
Utilitarian:
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