PSY100 EXAM STUDY NOTES

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Chapters One and Two Wilhelm Wundt – “The first psychologist” Edward Titchener – a student of Wundt, believed psychologists should study consciousness, but was more interested in description of consciousness rather than the explanation. Charles Darwin – coined the theory of natural selection, which played a significant role in the development of functionalism and behaviourism. William James – believed in stream of consciousness; first functionalist. Seven Themes of Psychological Science  Psychology is an Empirical Science:  o Uses empirical evidence to describe how we think, feel, and behave.  Nature and Nurture are Inextricably Entwined:  o The two depend on each other, and their influences cannot be separated.  The Brain and Mind are Inseparable:  o The brain enables the mind, and the two cannot be separated.  A New Biological Revolution is Energizing Research:  o Many scientific advances in brain activity have been studied recently, including the discovery of more neurotransmitters, advances in genome mapping to analyze both disease and behaviour, and advances in brain images. All of these change how we think about psychology.  The Mind is Adaptive:  o The brain has evolved to solve survival problems and adapt to environments.  Psychological Sense Crosses Levels of Analysis  We Often Are Unaware of the Multiple Influences on How We Think, Feel, and Act Four Ways of Knowing About the World  Intuition  Logic  Authority  Observation Four Canons of Science  Determinism – the universe is orderly; can be predicted and have meaningful, systematic causes  Empiricism – collecting data, making observations  Parsimony – two theories explaining one thing o Favour the simplest (“Occam’s Razor”)  Testability – must be testable o Falsability – must be possible to disprove PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Operational Definitions Sometimes variables are not well defined and cannot be directly observed. Constructs – internal attributes or characters that cannot be directly observed, but may describe and explain behaviour. Scientific method (HOMER): Hypothesize Operationalize Measure Evaluate Replicate/Revise/Report Observational Techniques:  Naturalistic Observation: passively observing thing in the environment. Observer does not alter behaviour.  Participant Observation: observer is actively involved in a situation Correlational Study – examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any manipulation on the part of the observer.  Tells us about the relationship between variables  Does NOT tell us whether one variable causes changes in another (correlation does not equal causation) Experiments  Independent Variable – the variable being changed  Dependent Variable – the variable being measured  Confound – a “third variable” only found in experimental studies  Random Sample – everyone has an equal chance of being in the experiment Data Collection  Self-Report Methods – People are asked to provide personal information  Priming – the activation of a concept will increase its accessibility and the likelihood it will be used  Fabrication – no data was collected, all data was false or made up  Falsification – tweaking the data to support the hypothesis  Plagiarism – taking credit for the work of others. Good research requires Accuracy and Validity. PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Chapter Three Biological Foundations Genetics – Nature and Nurture are inextricably entwined. Chromosomes – structures within the cell body that are made up of genes Gene – determines a particular characteristic in an organism Dominant Gene – expressed in the offspring Recessive Gene – expressed only when matched with a similar gene from the other parent Genotype – genetic constitution determined at the moment of conception Phenotype – observable physical characteristics resulting from both genetic and environmental influences The Nervous System Neuron – basic unit of the neural system. Operates through electrical impulses. Receive, integrate and transmit information in the nervous system Sensory Neurons – afferent neurons that detect information and pass it along to the brain Motor Neurons – direct muscles to contract or relax, producing movement Interneurons – communicate only with other neurons Dendrites –branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Cell body – information from other Axon – long narrow outgrowth of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons Terminal Buttons – nodules at the end of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to synapse Synapse (Synaptic Cleft) – site for communication between neurons Myelin Sheath – insulates the axon and allows the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier – small gaps of exposed axon, where action potentials are transmitted Action Potential – neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM How Do Neurons Fire? Excitatory Signals - increase the likelihood that a neuron will fire Inhibitory Signals – decrease the likelihood that a neuron will fire (both are done by affecting the polarization of the cell) All-or-None Principle – a neuron fires with the same potency each time (either fires or doesn’t). The firing frequency can vary. Action Potential – neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons Neurotransmitters – chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another. They are stored in small packages called vesicles inside the terminal buttons. There are many different types of neurotransmitters:  Acetylcholine: responsible for motor control  Epinephrine: better known as adrenaline  Nonepinephrine  Serotonin  Dopamine: the brain’s reward system Agonist drugs affect how neurotransmitters by:  Increasing the release of neurotransmitters  Blocking the re-uptake of neurotransmitters  Mimicking a neurotransmitter  Increasing dopamine, causing addictions (such as cocaine and meth) Antagonist drugs affect neurotransmitters by:  Blocking the release of neurotransmitters  Destroying neurotransmitters in the synapse  Mimicking a neurotransmitter  Example: botox The Brain Central Nervous System (CNS) – the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – all nerve cells not a part of the CNS, including the somatic and automatic nervous systems Brain Region Related Function Amygdala Emotion Basal Ganglia Movement and Reward Brain Stem Survival Cerebellum Motor Function Cerebral Cortex Thought and Planning Hippocampus Memory Hypothalamus Regulates Body Functions Reticular Formation Sleep and Arousal Thalamus Sensory Gateway PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Hypothalamus – vital for temperature regulation, emotion, sexual behaviour and motivation -> fleeing, feeding, fighting, fucking Thalamus – gateway to the brain; receives all incoming information before it reaches the cortex Hippocampus – important for the formation of most types of memory Brain Stem – most basic programs of survival, such as breathing, swallowing, orgasm, urinating Cerebellum – essential for coordinated movement and balance Amygdala – associates things with emotional responses Basal Ganglia – important for the initiation of planned movement Cerebral Cortex – outer layer of brain tissue that forms the brain surface Lobes  Occipital lobes: located at the back of the skull, important for vision.  Parietal lobes: mid top, vital for touch.  Temporal lobes: side, home of hippocampus and amygdala, important for memory and hearing  Frontal lobes: front of the brain, vital for planning and movement. Makes up 30% of brain. The left side of the brain receives signals from the right side of the body and vice versa. Peripheral Nervous System Divided into 2 primary components:  Somatic Nervous System (SNS) – concerned with your external environment o “fight or flight” response – dilates pupils to see danger, relaxes bronchi to take in more oxygen, restricts blood flow in order to give more to muscles  Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – concerned with internal environment o “rest and digest” response (or “feed and breed”) Chronic activation of either of these can lead to health problems, such as heart and kidney failure (sympathetic) and low blood pressure and depression (parasympathetic) Major Endocrine Glands Pituitary Gland  Governs the release of hormones from endocrine glands  Runs the system (“master gland”) PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Chapter Four and Five The Mind and Consciousness Sensation and Perception  Sensation: the detection of external stimuli (light, pressure, etc) responses to those stimuli and the transmission of these responses to the brain.  Perception: involves the processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals in the brain, which results in an internal representation of the stimuli – and the conscious experience. The Senses  Taste and Smell o Chemical substances from food that dissolve in saliva o The taste experience happens in the brain o Good/pleasant/bad – sensed in the prefrontal cortex  Touch: o Temperature receptors: hot/cold, at the outer layer of skin o Pressure receptors: at the base of hairs, capsules in the skin o Pain receptors: throughout the body  Auditory Perception o Sound waves go through the ear canal and vibrate the ear drum o Dorsal (“where”) stream – (where is that sound coming from) o Ventral (“what”) stream – (what kind of sound is it) o Every day acoustic environments are noisy.  Sight and Vision o Most important sense o Iris – eye colour o Retina – receives light and records visual messages o Optic nerve – carries visual messages to the brain o Pupil – hole in iris that controls amount of light entering the eye o Accommodation – muscles change lens shape, flattening to focus on distant objects and thickening to focus on a closer subject o Photoreceptors – convert energy from light particles (photons) into an electric signal o Rods – respond to low levels of light and result in black and white perception o Cones – respond to high levels of light and result in colour perception PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Chapter Six Learning Conditioning: a process in which environmental stimuli and behavioural responses become connected.  Classical Conditioning – occurs when we learn two things are linked o Associating two things we didn’t associate before  Operant Conditioning- occurs when we learn a behaviour leads to a particular outcome o Punishment/reward system Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned Stimulus – dog sees food  Unconditioned Response – dog salivates upon seeing food  Conditioned Stimulus – bell rings when food is present  Conditioned Response – dog salivates upon hearing bell Operant Conditioning  Positive Reinforcement – increases the probability of a behaviour reoccurring with a reward system  Negative Reinforcement – increases the probability of a behaviour by the removal of a negative stimulus  Positive Reinforcement – decreases the probability of behaviour being repeated by punishment system  Negative Reinforcement – decreases the probability of a behaviour being repeated by removing a positive stimulus Chapter Seven Attention and Memory In order for something to be potentially remembered, it must be attended to in the first place. Models of Memory PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Sensory Memory: Memory for sensory information that lasts only a fraction of a second. We are usually unaware of it. Short-Term (working) Memory: Will remain for only about 20 seconds unless you rehearse it.  Four Components of Working Memory: o Phonological loop: remembers auditory info (phone – audio) o Visuospatial Sketchpad: remembers visual and spatial info (visuo – vision; sketchpad – drawing) o Episodic Buffer: info about oneself (episode – tv show about a certain character) o Central Executive: coordinates info between each component (Executive CEO organizes company)  Chunking: organizing info into manageable units (KFCCEOUBCPHDUTM -> KFC CEO UBC PHD UTM)  Primary Effect: better memory for items at the beginning of a list  Recency Effect: better memory for items at the end of a list Long-Term Memory: Relatively permanent.  Explicit Memory: specific info we are consciously aware of o Declarative Memory: knowledge that can be declared o Episodic Memory: past experiences o Knowledge of the world (eg, capital of Japan = Tokyo)  Implicit Memory: unconscious memories o Classical Conditioning o Repetition Priming: identifying a previously experienced stimulus o Procedural Memory: motor skills and habits that we do without thinking about it  Schemas: an organized pattern of thought that usually remains unchanged. They help us organize and process information, and allow us to function in our daily environments Forgetting  Transience: forgetting over time  Interference: when another piece of info inhibits learning other info o Proactive: prior info inhibits learning new info o Retroactive: new info inhibits remembering old info  Blocking: “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon  Absentmindedness: failing to pay attention (forgetting keys)  Misattribution: misremembering a time, place, person or circumstance  Suggestibility: remembering misleading info PSY100 STUDY NOTES – FINAL EXAM Chapter Eight Thinking and Intelligence How do we represent knowledge?  A representation is anything that stands for something else o Mental Representation: a hypothetical “internal” cognitive symbol that represents external reality o Cognition: how we think and represent information  We organize knowledge in a few ways o Defining Attribute Model: objects are categorized according to their features o Prototype Model: objects are categorized by how closely they resemble the prototype How do we use knowledge?  Reasoning: using info to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable o Deductive Reasoning: using a belief or rule to determine validity o Inductive Reasoning: using general examples to determine validity  Decision Making: attempting to select the best alternative
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