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PSYC31 - Demonstration Test Notes

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Pare, Dwayne

PSYC31 – Chapter 9 Demonstration Orientation  Orientation is the awareness of self in relation to one’s surroundings, requires consistent and reliable integration of attention, perception, and memory  Orientation defects are among the most frequent symptoms of brain disease  Impaired orientation for time and place typically occurs with widespread cortical involvement, lesions in the limbic system, or damage to the RAS of the brain stem  While impaired orientation itself is strongly suggestive of cerebral dysfunction, good orientation is not evidence of cognitive or attentional competence Span Tests  Exposes subjects to large amount of info with instructions to repeat what was said or heard to indicate what was grasped in some kind of immediate response  Amount of info correctly repeated is considered indicative of the size of the subject’s attentional capacity Digit Span  Most common for measuring span of immediate verbal recall  2 different tests involved o Digits forward o Digits backward 1. Digit Span: Digits forward  Subject repeats a sequence exactly as it is given  Examiner reads the sequence one/sec  Each time the examiner reads the next longer sequence until the subject fails to remember o Failure will appear to be due to distraction, poor cooperation, inattentiveness such that a third trial is needed to find out span length o Third trial is needed when patient recalls more digits reversed than forward  Subjects who recall 7 digits correctly have demonstrated performance well within normal limits  Atleast 3 repetitions are necessary to test for consistency  Education has a decided effect on this task 2. Digits Span: Digits Backward  Scores 4-5 = within normal limits  Depends on patient’s educational background  Task involves mental double-tracking in that both the memory and the reversing operations must proceed simultaneously  Impairment is found in patients with unilateral spatial inattention or with attentional bias to the right-side of space, supporting the role of mental imagery in performing this task  Both visual and verbal processes contribute to the task  Sensitive to many different brain disorders  Patients with left hemisphere damage and patients with visual field defects have shorter reversed spans  More severe the lesion = fewer reversed digits recalled Sentence Repetition  Has naturalistic quality that can be related to patient’s everyday functioning  Patients with intact language skills but abnormally short sentence spans are like persons with a reading knowledge of a second language but little conversational experience trying to understand native speakers who seem to be talking too fast  Family members see them as not paying attention because of disinterest and self-absorption  Repeatability of sentences by normal subjects depends on their length, complexity, and meaningfulness and the speed at which they are spoken  Familiarity can play important role in rapidity and efficiency with which a sentence is grasped  Persons with strong dialects should not be given this test  Patients with damage distributed in TBI and MS are most likely to perform below normal limits on this task  Failures may occur at the auditory comprehension and articulation of words or because of dissociation between auditory input and speech output Ruff 2 & 7 Selective Attention Test  Controls differences between automatic and controlled visual search  While measuring aspects of selective attention, it provides info on sustained attention  Can be used for exploring visuoperceptual anomalies  Subject is asked to mark all the 2’s and 7’s in a mix on letters and/or numbers o Among letters = automatic condition o Among numbers = controlled search  Performance is scored for speed and accuracy  No sex differences seen at any age  Internal consistency and test-retest reliability is high  Slowing increased linearly with age and education was also linear until age 15 when the education effects leveled off  Patients with right-sided lesions were faster then left hemisphere involvement but slower tha normal subjects Trail Making Test (TMT)  Developed for Army Psychologists  Administered in 2 parts o Part A: subject draws lines to connect consecutively numbered circles o Part B: subject draws lines to connect the same number of consecutively numbered and lettered circles by alternating between the 2 sequenc
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